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      Fabrication and characterization of a titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanoparticles reinforced bio-nanocomposite containing Miswak ( Salvadora persica L.) extract – the antimicrobial, thermo-physical and barrier properties

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          Objective: The microbial, physico-chemical and optical corruptions threaten a variety of foods and drugs and consequently the human biological safety and its accessible resources. The humanbeing’s tendency towards bio-based materials and natural plant-extracts led to an increase in the usage of antimicrobial biocomposites based on medicinal herbs. Miswak ( Salvadora persica L.) extract (SPE) has been proved effective for its antimicrobial and other biological activities. Therefore, in this study, titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanoparticles (TONP) and SPE were applied to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) based bio-nanocomposites which would simultaneously promote some thermo-physical and barrier properties.

          Methods: CMC-neat film (C1), CMC/TONP-2% (C2) and CMC/TONP-2% with 150, 300 and 450 mg/mL SPE (SPE150, SPE30 and SPE450, respectively) were fabricated. The physical and mechanical properties; elemental mapping analysis (MAP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG); fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and UV-vis spectroscopies were done to further validate the results.

          Results: Addition of TONP (2%) improved the blocking of UV light at 280 nm while SPE-containing nanocomposites completely blocked it. FTIR, XRD and SEM confirmed the formation of homogeneous films and high miscibility of applied materials. TONP led to an increase in Young’s modulus (YM) and stress at break (SB) while SPE decreased them and enhanced the elongation to break (EB) (flexibility) of the active nanocomposites. Compared to CMC-film, the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) showed a higher thermal stability for CMC/TONP and CMC/TONP/SPE nanocomposites. The EDX spectroscopy and elemental mapping analysis (MAP) proved the existence and well-distributedness of Na, K, Cl, S, Ti, F and N elements in SPE-activated nanocomposites. The pure SPE and SPE-activated nanocomposites showed a favorable antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria.

          Conclusion: The CMC-TiO 2-SPE nanocomposites were homogeneously produced. Combination of TiO 2 nanoparticles and dose-dependent SPE led to an improvement of thermal stability, and high potential in antimicrobial and UV-barrier properties. These results can generally highlight the role of the fabricated antimicrobial bio-nanocomposites as a based for different applications especially in food/drug packaging or coating.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Benzyl Isothiocyanate, a Major Component from the Roots of Salvadora Persica Is Highly Active against Gram-Negative Bacteria

          Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.
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            A review on miswak (Salvadora persica) and its effect on various aspects of oral health.

            Plants have been used for centuries to improve dental health and to promote oral hygiene, and this practice persists in several communities throughout the world. "Miswak" is an Arabic word meaning "tooth-cleaning stick," and Salvadora persica miswak has a wide geographic distribution. It was used by ancient Arabs to whiten and polish the teeth. This review discusses the history and chemical composition of S. persica miswak and its influence on oral health, including the advantages and disadvantages of its use.
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              Preparation and characterization of whey protein film incorporated with TiO2 nanoparticles.

              Biodegradable titanium dioxide (TiO(2))/whey protein isolate (WPI) blend films were made by casting denatured WPI film solutions incorporated with TiO(2) nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, and fluorescence spectra of the films showed the successful incorporation of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the WPI matrix and indicated the interactions between TiO(2) and WPI. Mechanical tests revealed the antiplasticizing effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the WPI/TiO(2) film. Small amounts ( 1 wt%) of TiO(2) improves moisture barrier properties but lowers the tensile properties of the film. Microstructural evaluation confirmed the aggregation and distribution of TiO(2) nanoparticles within the WPI matrix and validated the results of functional properties of the WPI/TiO(2) film.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                10 May 2019
                : 14
                : 3439-3454
                [1 ]Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Basic Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences , Maragheh, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen , DK- 2100 Copenhagen. Denmark
                [4 ]Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tabriz , Tabriz, Iran
                [5 ]Department of Microbiology, Baku State University , Baku, Azerbaijan
                [6 ]Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                [7 ]Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Asghar TanomandDepartment of Basic Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences , Maragheh, IranTel +98 914 121 0452Email tanomanda@
                Hossein Samadi Kafil, Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, IranTel +98 912 718 4735Email Kafilhs@
                © 2019 Ahmadi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, References: 65, Pages: 16
                Original Research


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