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      Dental Caries Experience, Dental Anomalies, and Morphometric Analysis of Canine among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins

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          Abstract

          Background:

          The study of twins is a well-known and a unique method that is used to investigate the genetic contributions to physical features and diseases in human.

          Aim:

          To estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influence to observed variations in different dental features or traits.

          Methodology:

          Thirty twins in the age group of 15–30 years were selected for the study, and the dental caries experience scores, dental anomalies, and morphometric analysis of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were compared.

          Results:

          MZ twins unlike DZ twins showed within-pair resemblance in decayed, decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and molar relation. No morphometric analysis parameters and dental anomalies had significant mean difference between the groups. Decay, filling, DMFT, spacing, mandibular irregularity, open bite, and mesiodistal width of the right and left canine showed a higher positive correlation in MZ than DZ twins. Heritability estimate was low for morphometric analysis parameters. There is genetic dominance in decay, DMFT, spacing, molar relation, and diastema. Pearson's correlation revealed a positive and statistically significant correlation among all morphometric analysis parameters for MZ twins, but not DZ twins. Dental caries has a higher concordance rate (87.5%), correlation (71.6%), and heritability (87.8%).

          Conclusion:

          Most of the dental parameters are significantly heritable with up to 85% of the variance attributable to genetic factors. Environmental factors play a major role in developing malocclusion and causing dental caries. Morphology of canines can be used as a supplementary tool to determine zygosity.

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          Most cited references16

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          A genetic contribution to dental caries, occlusion, and morphology as demonstrated by twins reared apart.

          The heritability of dental characteristics has been systematically studied in animals, human populations, families, and twins, but not in twins reared apart. Under the assumption that environmental factors are no different for monozygotic twins reared apart than for dizygotic twins reared apart, the present study measured the genetic variance of several dental characteristics in twins reared apart. Ninety-seven subjects (44 twin pairs, three triplet sets) of mean age 40.6 years (S.D. 11.7) were examined over a six-year period by means of clinical and radiographic examinations, study models, and dental history questionnaires. Characteristics assessed retrospectively were: dentate status, treatment status, treatment/caries status, tooth size, malalignment, occlusion, and morphology. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, intraclass correlations, heritability estimates, and concordance. There was statistically significant resemblance within monozygotic but not dizygotic pairs in the number of teeth present (p less than 0.001), percentage of teeth and surfaces restored (p less than 0.001), percentage of teeth and surfaces restored or carious (p less than 0.001), tooth size (p less than 0.001), and malalignment (p less than 0.009). Intercanine and intermolar arch width showed significant resemblance within both monozygotic (p less than 0.001) and dizygotic (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.05) pairs, whereas overjet and overbite showed no significant resemblance within pairs. Morphological features (Carabelli's trait and mandibular first premolar groove configuration) were more highly concordant in monozygous than in dizygous twins. This study provides new evidence for a marked genetic component to dentate status and dental caries experience and confirms previous reports of acknowledged inherited contributions to tooth size, malalignment, occlusion, and morphology.
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            Genetic and environmental influences on human dental variation: A critical evaluation of studies involving twins☆

            Utilising data derived from twins and their families, different approaches can be applied to study genetic and environmental influences on human dental variation. The different methods have advantages and limitations and special features of the twinning process are important to consider. Model-fitting approaches have shown that different combinations of additive genetic variance (A), non-additive genetic variance (D), common environmental variance (C), and unique environmental variance (E) contribute to phenotypic variation within the dentition, reflecting different ontogenetic and phylogenetic influences. Epigenetic factors are also proposed as important in explaining differences in the dentitions of monozygotic co-twins. Heritability estimates are high for most tooth size variables, for Carabelli trait and for dental arch dimensions, moderate for intercuspal distances, and low for some occlusal traits. In addition to estimating the contributions of unmeasured genetic and environmental influences to phenotypic variation, structural equation models can also be used to test the effects of measured genetic and environmental factors. Whole-genome linkage analysis, association analysis of putative candidate genes, and whole genome association approaches, now offer exciting opportunities to locate key genes involved in human dental development.
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              A critical review: an overview of genetic influence on dental caries.

              Dental decay is a complex, chronic disease and one of the most common illnesses in dentistry today. Several dental decay risk factors have been identified during the last years; however, these variables alone may not entirely explain the disease development. Genetic research applied to dental decay began in the 1930s with experimental reports in animals and human observational research. Only recently, have some studies begun to search for genetic polymorphisms in humans and apply linkage analysis. However, due to the complex characteristics of the disease, the strong influence from several biological and environmental factors, and the small number of genetic studies related to dental caries, the genetic basis still requires further study. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a brief description of the current methodology for genetic analysis of complex traits, followed by a comprehensive evaluation of the literature related to genetic susceptibility/resistance to dental decay and a discussion of different aspects of the applied methodology. Advances towards the elucidation of the dental decay genetic basis may contribute to the understanding of the disease etiopathogenesis and to the identification of high risk groups, thus providing potential targets for effective screening, prevention and treatment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Contemp Clin Dent
                Contemp Clin Dent
                CCD
                Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0976-237X
                0976-2361
                September 2018
                : 9
                : Suppl 2
                : S314-S317
                Affiliations
                [1] Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. V Anu, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: pcnanu@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                CCD-9-314
                10.4103/ccd.ccd_345_18
                6169262
                30294164
                cc655385-6edf-443d-af84-a00081a734bb
                Copyright: © 2018 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                History
                Categories
                Original Article

                Dentistry
                canines,dental anomalies,dental caries,heritability estimate,malocclusion,twins,zygosity determination

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