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      Bifunctional fused polypeptide inhibits the growth and metastasis of breast cancer

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          Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, with urgent need to develop new therapeutics. Targeted therapy is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy. Stromal-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been implicated in the metastasis of breast cancer, which renders it to be therapeutic target. This study aimed to evaluate the anticancer effect of fused TAT– DV1–BH3 polypeptide, an antagonist of CXCR4, and investigate the underlying mechanism for the cancer cell-killing effect in the treatment of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. This results in a potent inhibitory effect of fused TAT–DV1–BH3 polypeptide on tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice bearing established MDA-MB-231 tumors. Fused TAT–DV1–BH3 polypeptide inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells but did not affect that of HEK-293 cells. The fused TAT–DV1–BH3 polypeptide colocalized with mitochondria and exhibited a proapoptotic effect through the regulation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, the fused TAT–DV1–BH3 polypeptide suppressed the migration and invasion of the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, the DV1-mediated inhibition of the stromal-derived factor-1/CXCR4 pathway contributed to the antimetastasis effect, evident from the reduction in the level of phosphoinositide 3 kinase and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that the apoptosis-inducing effect and migration- and invasion-suppressing effect explain the tumor regression and metastasis inhibition in vivo, with the involvement of caspase- and CXCR4-mediated signaling pathway. The data suggest that the fused TAT–DV1–BH3 polypeptide is a promising agent for the treatment of breast cancer, and more studies are warranted to fully elucidate the therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Breast cancer starts as a local disease, but it can metastasize to the lymph nodes and distant organs. At primary diagnosis, prognostic markers are used to assess whether the transition to systemic disease is likely to have occurred. The prevailing model of metastasis reflects this view--it suggests that metastatic capacity is a late, acquired event in tumorigenesis. Others have proposed the idea that breast cancer is intrinsically a systemic disease. New molecular technologies, such as DNA microarrays, support the idea that metastatic capacity might be an inherent feature of breast tumours. These data have important implications for prognosis prediction and our understanding of metastasis.
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              Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a mechanism by which cells undergo death to control cell proliferation or in response to DNA damage. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. These novel agents include those targeting the extrinsic pathway such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1, and those targeting the intrinsic Bcl-2 family pathway such as antisense bcl-2 oligonucleotides. Many pathways and proteins control the apoptosis machinery. Examples include p53, the nuclear factor kappa B, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway, and the ubiquitin/proteosome pathway. These can be targeted by specific modulators such as bortezomib, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors such as CCI-779 and RAD 001. Because these pathways may be preferentially altered in tumor cells, there is potential for a selective effect in tumors sparing normal tissue. This article reviews the current understanding of the apoptotic pathways, including the extrinsic (cytoplasmic) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways, and the agents being developed to target these pathways.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                16 October 2015
                : 9
                : 5671-5686
                [1 ]Medical Molecular Diagnostics Key Laboratory of Guangdong, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Electroencephalogram Room, Guangdong Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]Department of Orthopedics, Guangdong Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong-Jun Liu, Medical Molecular Diagnostics Key Laboratory of Guangdong, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 769 2289 6350, Fax +86 769 2289 6082, Email liuyongjun@ 123456gdmc.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this study

                © 2015 Liang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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