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      Interlinker Hydrogen Bonds Govern CO 2 Adsorption in a Series of Flexible 2D Diacylhydrazone/Isophthalate-Based MOFs: Influence of Metal Center, Linker Substituent, and Activation Temperature

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          Abstract

          Four new layered flexible metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) containing a diacylhydrazone moiety, namely, guest-filled [Zn 2(iso) 2(tdih) 2] n ( 1), [Zn 2(NH 2iso) 2(tdih) 2] n ( 2), [Cd 2(iso) 2(tdih) 2] n ( 3) and [Cd 2(NH 2iso) 2(tdih) 2] n ( 4) were synthesized using terephthalaldehyde di-isonicotinoylhydrazone ( tdih) as a linear ditopic linker as well as isophtalate (iso) or 5-aminoisophthalate (NH 2iso) as angular colinkers. The MOFs with hexacoordinated cadmium centers feature two-dimensional pore systems as compared to the MOFs with pentacoordinated zinc centers showing either zero-dimensional or mixed zero-/one-dimensional voids, as evidenced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In contrast to the frameworks based on isophtalates which do not show any significant gas uptakes, introduction of amino-substituted linker enables CO 2 adsorption. Gently activated aminoisophthalate-based frameworks, that is, guest-exchanged in methanol and heated to 100 °C, show reversible gated CO 2 adsorptions at 195 K, whereas the increase of activation temperature to 150 °C or more leads to one-step isotherms and lower adsorption capacities. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy reveal significant structural differences in interlayer hydrogen bonding upon activation of materials at higher temperatures. The work emphasizes the role of hydrogen bonds in crystal engineering of layered materials and the importance of activation conditions in such systems.

          Abstract

          Interplay between a metal center and functionalization of isophthalate linker leads to remarkable diversity of structures and properties in the series of layered flexible metal−organic frameworks. Intriguing adsorption properties include stepwise gated CO 2 adsorptions and strong dependence on activation conditions. The role of hydrogen bonds in crystal engineering of layered materials is underscored by activation−structure−adsorption correlations.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Functional Porous Coordination Polymers

          The chemistry of the coordination polymers has in recent years advanced extensively, affording various architectures, which are constructed from a variety of molecular building blocks with different interactions between them. The next challenge is the chemical and physical functionalization of these architectures, through the porous properties of the frameworks. This review concentrates on three aspects of coordination polymers: 1). the use of crystal engineering to construct porous frameworks from connectors and linkers ("nanospace engineering"), 2). characterizing and cataloging the porous properties by functions for storage, exchange, separation, etc., and 3). the next generation of porous functions based on dynamic crystal transformations caused by guest molecules or physical stimuli. Our aim is to present the state of the art chemistry and physics of and in the micropores of porous coordination polymers.
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            A rationale for the large breathing of the porous aluminum terephthalate (MIL-53) upon hydration.

            Aluminum 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate Al(OH)[O(2)C-C(6)H(4)-CO(2)]. [HO(2)C-C(6)H(4)-CO(2)H](0.70) or MIL-53 as (Al) has been hydrothermally synthesized by heating a mixture of aluminum nitrate, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, and water, for three days at 220 degrees C. Its 3 D framework is built up of infinite trans chains of corner-sharing AlO(4)(OH)(2) octahedra. The chains are interconnected by the 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate groups, creating 1 D rhombic-shaped tunnels. Disordered 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid molecules are trapped inside these tunnels. Their evacuation upon heating, between 275 and 420 degrees C, leads to a nanoporous open-framework (MIL-53 ht (Al) or Al(OH)[O(2)C-C(6)H(4)-CO(2)]) with empty pores of diameter 8.5 A. This solid exhibits a Langmuir surface area of 1590(1) m(2)g(-1) together with a remarkable thermal stability, since it starts to decompose only at 500 degrees C. At room temperature, the solid reversibly absorbs water in its tunnels, causing a very large breathing effect and shrinkage of the pores. Analysis of the hydration process by solid-state NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (27)Al) has clearly indicated that the trapped water molecules interact with the carboxylate groups through hydrogen bonds, but do not affect the hydroxyl species bridging the aluminum atoms. The hydrogen bonds between water and the oxygen atoms of the framework are responsible for the contraction of the rhombic channels. The structures of the three forms have been determined by means of powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for MIL-53 as (Al) are as follows: orthorhombic system, Pnma (no. 62), a = 17.129(2), b = 6.628(1), c = 12.182(1) A; for MIL-53 ht (Al), orthorhombic system, Imma (no. 74), a = 6.608(1), b = 16.675(3), c = 12.813(2) A; for MIL-53 lt (Al), monoclinic system, Cc (no. 9), a = 19.513(2), b = 7.612(1), c = 6.576(1) A, beta = 104.24(1) degrees.
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              Flexible metal-organic frameworks.

              Advances in flexible and functional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also called soft porous crystals, are reviewed by covering the literature of the five years period 2009-2013 with reference to the early pertinent work since the late 1990s. Flexible MOFs combine the crystalline order of the underlying coordination network with cooperative structural transformability. These materials can respond to physical and chemical stimuli of various kinds in a tunable fashion by molecular design, which does not exist for other known solid-state materials. Among the fascinating properties are so-called breathing and swelling phenomena as a function of host-guest interactions. Phase transitions are triggered by guest adsorption/desorption, photochemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Other important flexible properties of MOFs, such as linker rotation and sub-net sliding, which are not necessarily accompanied by crystallographic phase transitions, are briefly mentioned as well. Emphasis is given on reviewing the recent progress in application of in situ characterization techniques and the results of theoretical approaches to characterize and understand the breathing mechanisms and phase transitions. The flexible MOF systems, which are discussed, are categorized by the type of metal-nodes involved and how their coordination chemistry with the linker molecules controls the framework dynamics. Aspects of tailoring the flexible and responsive properties by the mixed component solid-solution concept are included, and as well examples of possible applications of flexible metal-organic frameworks for separation, catalysis, sensing, and biomedicine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Inorg Chem
                Inorg Chem
                ic
                inocaj
                Inorganic Chemistry
                American Chemical Society
                0020-1669
                1520-510X
                14 July 2020
                03 August 2020
                : 59
                : 15
                : 10717-10726
                Affiliations
                []Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University , Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
                []Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden , Bergstrasse 66, 01062 Dresden, Germany
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c01182
                7467668
                32663400
                Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

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                ic0c01182
                ic0c01182

                Inorganic & Bioinorganic chemistry

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