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      Monocyte-Related Determinants of Inflammation in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

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          Aims: We studied markers of monocyte activation, i.e., the cell surface expression of CD11b and CD62L, and the serum concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1; a monocyte-specific chemoattractant) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1; an adhesion molecule involved in monocyte recruitment) in 20 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), in 25 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, and in 27 healthy subjects. Results: Monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood of PD patients had a significantly higher expression of CD62L (p = 0.02) as compared with monocytes from healthy subjects and a lower CD11b/CD18 expression as compared with monocytes collected from healthy subjects (p < 0.001) and from patients with renal insufficiency (p < 0.001). Monocytes from PD patients had, however, the capacity to increase the expression of CD11b following stimulation with a potent chemotactic factor. The serum concentrations of MCP-1 and sVCAM-1 were higher in PD patients (575 ± 51 and 1,517 ± 89 ng/ml) than in healthy subjects (225 ± 17 and 668 ± 64 ng/ml, respectively; p < 0.001 for both comparisons). There was a correlation between the levels of sVCAM-1 and MCP-1 (r = 0.48, p < 0.05) in patients on PD, but neither correlated with the monocyte expression of CD11b/CD18 or CD62L. The concentration of C-reactive protein was higher in patients on PD as compared with healthy subjects and correlated significantly with the concentration of sVCAM-1 (r = 0.63, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Monocytes in the peripheral circulation of patients on PD have a CD62L<sup>high</sup>/CD11b<sup>low</sup> phenotype, indicating that they have not undergone complete differentiation. Patients also have an increase in the systemic chemotactic activity for monocytes in combination with increased levels of sVCAM-1 and C-reactive protein. These inflammatory aberrations may play a pathophysiological role in the response to inflammatory and infectious diseases in patients on PD.

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          Serum Levels of Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Chronic Renal Failure and Dialysis Patients

          Besides cell-bound adhesion molecules, which are of fundamental importance to a large number of physiological and pathological processes, soluble forms of adhesion molecules have been detected in the circulating blood in recent years. Circulating soluble adhesion molecules appear to be biologically active, and raised levels have been reported in a variety of disorders. In the present study, we used ELISA to measure the serum levels of four soluble adhesion molecules in 23 undialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), 13 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 17 on chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 18 healthy controls having a similar mean and distribution of ages. The investigated soluble (s) molecules included intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin and sP-selectin. sICAM-1 was found to be elevated in patients with CRF (p < 0.05), on CAPD (p < 0.02) and HD (p < 0.0001) compared with the controls but levels did not differ between the three patient groups. The higher sVCAM-1 values found in CRF (p < 0.02), CAPD (p < 0.05) and HD (p < 0.0001) as compared to controls again failed to differentiate the three groups of patients. Soluble E-selectin was also raised in the three groups (p < 0.0001) with no difference between them. Increased sP-selectin was found in CRF (p < 0.05), CAPD (p < 0.02) and in HD patients (p < 0.0001) compared to controls, and levels in HD were significantly higher (p < 0.02) than in CRF patients. Predialysis serum molecule levels did not differ between HD patients treated with cuprophan or with polyacrylonitrile dialyzers. HD sessions with both dialyzers had no effect on sICAM-1, while a decrease (p < 0.02) in sP-selectin was found after dialysis with cuprophan. In undialyzed patients with CRF, regression analysis showed a strong linear correlation between serum creatinine and serum levels of each soluble molecule. These results demonstrate that serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin are elevated in both undialyzed patients with CRF and patients on CAPD or HD. The elevated serum levels of these proteins probably reflect inadequate clearance as well as enhanced synthesis/release.
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            Human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).


              Author and article information

              Am J Nephrol
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              February 2001
              12 March 2001
              : 21
              : 1
              : 40-46
              Departments of aNephrology and bClinical Immunology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
              46217 Am J Nephrol 2001;21:40–46
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 4, References: 25, Pages: 7
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46217
              Clinical Study


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