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      Higher-protein diets improve indexes of sleep in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults: results from 2 randomized controlled trials 1 2 3

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          Abstract

          Background: Limited and inconsistent research findings exist about the effect of dietary protein intake on indexes of sleep.

          Objective: We assessed the effect of protein intake during dietary energy restriction on indexes of sleep in overweight and obese adults in 2 randomized, controlled feeding studies.

          Design: For study 1, 14 participants [3 men and 11 women; mean ± SE age: 56 ± 3 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2): 30.9 ± 0.6] consumed energy-restricted diets (a 750-kcal/d deficit) with either beef and pork (BP; n = 5) or soy and legume (SL; n = 9) as the main protein sources for 3 consecutive 4-wk periods with 10% (control), 20%, or 30% of total energy from protein (random order). At baseline and the end of each period, the global sleep score (GSS) was assessed with the use of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. For study 2, 44 participants (12 men and 32 women; age: 52 ± 1 y; BMI: 31.4 ± 0.5) consumed a 3-wk baseline energy-balance diet with 0.8 g protein · kg baseline body mass −1 · d −1. Then, study 2 subjects consumed either a normal-protein [NP (control); n = 23] or a high-protein (HP; n = 21) (0.8 compared with 1.5 g · kg −1 · d −1, respectively) energy-restricted diet (a 750-kcal/d deficit) for 16 wk. The PSQI was administered during baseline week 3 and intervention weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. GSSs ranged from 0 to 21 arbitrary units (au), with a higher value representing a worse GSS during the preceding month.

          Results: In study 1, we showed that a higher protein quantity improved GSSs independent of the protein source. The GSS was higher ( P < 0.05) when 10% (6.0 ± 0.4 au) compared with 20% (5.0 ± 0.4 au) protein was consumed, with 30% protein (5.4 ± 0.6 au) intermediate. In study 2, at baseline, the GSS was not different between NP (5.2 ± 0.5 au) and HP (5.4 ± 0.5 au) groups. Over time, the GSS was unchanged for the NP group and improved for the HP group ( P-group-by-time interaction < 0.05). After intervention (week 16), GSSs for NP and HP groups were 5.9 ± 0.5 and 4.0 ± 0.6 au, respectively ( P < 0.01).

          Conclusion: The consumption of a greater proportion of energy from protein while dieting may improve sleep in overweight and obese adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01005563 (study 1) and NCT01692860 (study 2).

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Am J Clin Nutr
          Am. J. Clin. Nutr
          ajcn
          The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
          American Society for Nutrition
          0002-9165
          1938-3207
          March 2016
          10 February 2016
          1 March 2017
          : 103
          : 3
          : 766-774
          Affiliations
          [4 ]Departments of Nutrition Science and
          [5 ]Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
          Author notes
          [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: campbellw@ 123456purdue.edu .
          [1]

          Supported by The Beef Checkoff (study 1), the National Pork Board (study 1), the National Dairy Council (study 2), the Purdue Ingestive Behavior Research Center (study 2), and the NIH (grant UL1TR001108; studies 1 and 2).

          [2]

          Financial supporters had no role in the design or conduct of the study or in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data.

          [3]

          Supplemental Figures 1 and 2 and Supplemental Tables 1–5 are available from the “Online Supporting Material” link in the online posting of the article and from the same link in the online table of contents at http://ajcn.nutrition.org.

          Article
          PMC4763499 PMC4763499 4763499 124669
          10.3945/ajcn.115.124669
          4763499
          26864362
          cc89116f-3944-4d3c-92c2-beae57f9f5a7
          © 2016 American Society for Nutrition
          History
          : 28 September 2015
          : 30 December 2015
          Page count
          Pages: 9
          Categories
          Energy and Protein Metabolism

          global sleep score,higher-protein diet,indexes of sleep,Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index,weight loss

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