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      Parasites as Drivers and Passengers of Human-Mediated Biological Invasions

      , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 2

      Ecohealth

      Springer US

      biotic resistance, enemy release, establishment, non-native species, novel weapons, spread

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          Abstract

          We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of parasites in biological invasions by alien species. Parasites have frequently been invoked as drivers of invasions, but have received less attention as invasion passengers. The evidence to date that parasites drive invasions by hosts is weak: while there is abundant evidence that parasites have effects in the context of alien invasions, there is little evidence to suggest that parasites have differential effects on alien species that succeed versus fail in the invasion process. Particular case studies are suggestive but not yet informative about general effects. What evidence there is for parasites as aliens suggests that the same kind of factors determine their success as for non-parasites. Thus, availability is likely to be an important determinant of the probability of translocation. Establishment and spread are likely to depend on propagule pressure and on the environment being suitable (all necessary hosts and vectors are present); the likelihood of both of these dependencies being favourable will be affected by traits relating to parasite life history and demography. The added complication for the success of parasites as aliens is that often this will depend on the success of their hosts. We discuss how these conclusions help us to understand the likely effects of parasites on the success of establishing host populations (alien or native).

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          Introduced species and their missing parasites.

          Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.
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            Predation, Competition, and Prey Communities: A Review of Field Experiments

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              The Population Dynamics of Microparasites and Their Invertebrate Hosts

               R Anderson,  R M May (1981)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +44 (0)20 7679 7107 , t.blackburn@ucl.ac.uk
                Journal
                Ecohealth
                Ecohealth
                Ecohealth
                Springer US (New York )
                1612-9202
                1612-9210
                28 January 2016
                28 January 2016
                2017
                : 14
                : Suppl 1
                : 61-73
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, , University College London (UCL), ; Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2242 7273, GRID grid.20419.3e, Institute of Zoology, , Zoological Society of London, ; Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4RY UK
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7304, GRID grid.1010.0, School of Earth & Environmental Sciences and the Environment Institute, , University of Adelaide, ; Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, GRID grid.56302.32, Distinguished Scientist Fellowship Program, , King Saud University, ; P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 1145 Saudi Arabia
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2214 904X, GRID grid.11956.3a, Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, , Stellenbosch University, ; Stellenbosch, South Africa
                Article
                1092
                10.1007/s10393-015-1092-6
                5357264
                26822780
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © International Association for Ecology and Health 2017

                Public health

                biotic resistance, enemy release, establishment, non-native species, novel weapons, spread

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