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      Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Echocardiographic Evaluation

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          Background: Hypertension is a frequent complication of end-stage renal disease and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is common in patients with poorly controlled hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate hypertension in pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, to compare casual and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements and to evaluate the impact of BP parameters on LVH. Methods: The study comprised 25 PD patients (9 M, 16 F; mean age 14.14 ± 3.32 years) that have been followed in outpatient clinics. Medical records were reviewed for demographic features; casual BP measurements, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiographic evaluation were applied to all patients. Results: The mean 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure (SBP) values were found to be higher than casual SBP (p < 0.001). Significant difference was present in the frequency of hypertension between casual SBP (32%) and the mean daytime SBP (56%) (p < 0.05). Nighttime systolic hypertension was detected in 14 (56%) and diastolic hypertension in 16 (64%) patients. Elevated daytime SBP load and DBP load were detected in 64 and 76% of the patients, respectively. Elevated nighttime SBP load and DBP load were detected in 72% of the patients. Seventeen (68%) patients had attenuated dipping for SBP. The mean left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 52.65 ± 18.17 g/m<sup>2.7</sup> and 13 (52%) patients had LVH. LVMI was significantly correlated with casual BP measurements and the majority of ABPM parameters. Conclusion: The majority of pediatric PD patients had BP abnormalities in which severity was most accurately assessed with ABPM. Casual BP and majority of ABPM parameters were found to be significantly correlated with LVMI. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be performed in all pediatric PD patients.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Distribution of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children: normalized reference values and role of body dimensions.

            Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an essential tool in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of arterial hypertension in children. The statistical use of pediatric ABPM reference values has been compromised by the non-Gaussian distribution of 24-h blood pressure (BP) in children. To develop distribution-adjusted pediatric ABPM reference tables. From cross-sectional ABPM data obtained in 949 healthy children and adolescents aged 5-20 years, a set of reference tables was developed for 24-h, daytime and night-time mean values of systolic, diastolic, mean arterial BP and heart rate, utilizing the LMS method to account for the variably skewed distribution of ABPM data. Age- and gender-specific estimates of the distribution median (M), coefficient of variation (S) and degree of skewness (L) were obtained by a maximum-likelihood curve-fitting technique. The estimates of, and can be used to normalize ABPM data to gender and age or height. Re-application of the established, and values in the reference population confirmed appropriate normalization of ABPM values. Height standard deviation scores (SDS), body mass index (BMI) SDS and heart rate SDS were independent positive predictors of 24-h systolic BP SDS. Diastolic 24-h mean BP SDS showed a weak correlation with BMI SDS only. The use of LMS reference tables permits calculation of appropriate SDS values for ABPM in children. Whereas systolic 24-h BP is independently correlated with age, relative height and obesity, diastolic values are almost independent of age and relative height, and weakly associated with relative obesity.
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              Ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular mass index in hypertensive children.

              To determine whether ambulatory blood pressure is more predictive of left ventricular hypertrophy than is casual blood pressure in hypertensive children, echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure data from 37 untreated hypertensive children were analyzed. Left ventricular mass was calculated using the Devereux equation, left ventricular mass index was calculated as left ventricular mass (in grams)/height(2.7) (in meters), and left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass index >51 g/m(2.7). Average blood pressure, blood pressure load, and blood pressure index (average blood pressure divided by pediatric ambulatory blood pressure 95th percentile) were calculated. Left ventricular mass index was strongly correlated with 24-hour systolic blood pressure index (r=0.43, P=0.008) and was also correlated with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (r=0.34, P=0.037), 24-hour systolic blood pressure load (r=0.38, P=0.020), wake systolic blood pressure load (r=0.37, P=0.025), sleep systolic blood pressure (r=0.33, P=0.048), and sleep systolic blood pressure load (r=0.38, P=0.021). Left ventricular mass index did not correlate with age, weight, clinic blood pressure, or ambulatory diastolic blood pressure. The overall prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was 27%. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was 47% (8 of 17) in patients with both systolic blood pressure load >50% and 24-hour systolic blood pressure index >1.0, compared with 10% (2 of 20) in patients without both criteria (P=0.015). These data suggest ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be useful for the clinical assessment of hypertensive children by identifying those at high risk for the presence of end organ injury.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                September 2006
                21 June 2006
                : 104
                : 2
                : c101-c106
                Departments of aPediatric Nephrology, bPediatric Cardiology and cBiostatistics, Ankara University School of Medicine, and dDepartment of Pediatric Nephrology, Ankara Ministry of Health Dıskapı Children’s Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
                93997 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;104:c101–c106
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 3, References: 25, Pages: 1
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