NOX/DUOX enzymes are transmembrane proteins that carry electrons through biological membranes generating reactive oxygen species. The NOX family is composed of seven members, which are NOX1 to NOX5 and DUOX1 and 2. DUOX enzymes were initially called thyroid oxidases, based on their high expression level in the thyroid tissue. However, DUOX expression has been documented in several extrathyroid tissues, mostly at the apical membrane of the salivary glands, the airways, and the intestinal tract, revealing additional cellular functions associated with DUOX-related H 2O 2 generation. In this review, we will briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding DUOX structure and physiological functions, as well as their possible role in cancer biology.