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      Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis

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          Most cited references 38

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          Diazepam binding inhibitor and its processing products stimulate mitochondrial steroid biosynthesis via an interaction with mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors.

          A recognition site for benzodiazepines structurally different from that linked to various gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subtypes is located on the outer mitochondrial membranes of steroidogenic cells. This protein has been signified to be important in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. Because of its location it is designated herein as the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR). A putative endogenous ligand for MBR is the peptide diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), previously shown to displace drugs from MBR and to be expressed and stored in steroidogenic cells rich in MBR. The two model systems used to study steroidogenic regulation by DBI were the Y-1 adrenocortical and MA-10 Leydig cell lines previously shown to be applicable in studies of mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Both cell lines contain DBI as well as DBI processing products, including the DBI fragments that on reverse phase HPLC coelute with the naturally occurring triakontatetraneuropeptide [TTN; DBI-(17-50)] and octadecaneuropeptide [DBI-(33-50)]. When DBI purified from rat brain was added to mitochondria prepared from Y-1 and MA-10 cell lines, it increased the rates of pregnenolone formation in a dose-related manner. In both cell lines, maximal stimulation (3-fold) of mitochondrial steroidogenesis was obtained with 0.33 microM DBI, with an EC50 of approximately 0.1 microM. However, DBI concentrations higher than 1 microM caused a smaller increase in pregnenolone formation. Flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine that binds with high nanomolar affinity to MBR, was recently shown to act as an antagonist of ACTH and LH/hCG-induced steroidogenesis and was found in the present studies to inhibit DBI-stimulated mitochondrial steroidogenesis. During the incubation with mitochondria, DBI was partially processed to different peptide fragments, including octadecaneuropeptide and TTN. To determine whether DBI processing products influence mitochondrial steroid biosynthesis, several DBI fragments and other peptides structurally unrelated to DBI were tested. Among these, only TTN stimulated mitochondrial steroid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner similar to DBI.
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            Molecular mechanisms in the receptor action of benzodiazepines.

             E. Costa,  A Guidotti (1979)
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              Distribution and characterization of diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) in peripheral tissues of rat.

              We studied the expression and distribution of the polypeptide diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) in rat peripheral organs by immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay, Northern blot analysis and binding assay. Variable amounts of the DBI peptide and DBI mRNA were found in all the tissues examined (liver, duodenum, testis, kidney, adrenal gland, heart, ovary, lung, skeletal muscle and spleen), with the highest level of expression in liver (220 pmol of DBI/mg protein) and the lowest in spleen (11 pmol of DBI/mg protein). A good correlation between DBI-like immunoreactivity (DBI-LI) and mRNA content was found in all tissues except the heart. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed discrete localization of DBI-LI in cell types with specialized functions: for example, the highest DBI-LI content was found in steroid-producing cells (glomerulosa and fasciculata cells of adrenal cortex, Leydig cells of testis); lower DBI-LI immunostaining was found in epithelial cells specialized for water and electrolyte transport (intestinal mucosa, distal convoluted tubules of kidney). Hepatic cells contained moderate immunoreactivity however the total content of DBI in liver is relatively high and is due to the diffuse presence of DBI in every hepatocyte. Cells with high expression of DBI have been shown to contain a high density of mitochondrial benzodiazepine (BZ) binding sites. This observation led us to perform a competitive binding assay between DBI and [3H]PK11195 (a ligand for the mitochondrial BZ binding sites) on mitochondrial membranes of adrenal cortical cells. In this experiment, DBI yielded an apparent competitive inhibition of the binding of PK11195 to the BZ binding sites. Our data support a possible role for DBI as endogenous regulator of intracellular metabolic functions, such as steroidogenesis, via the mitochondrial BZ receptors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Steroids
                Steroids
                Elsevier BV
                0039128X
                January 1997
                January 1997
                : 62
                : 1
                : 21-28
                Article
                10.1016/S0039-128X(96)00154-7
                © 1997

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