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      Interleukin-2-Dependent Mechanisms Are Involved in the Development of Glomerulosclerosis after Partial Renal Ablation in Rats

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          Abstract

          Background: Glomerulosclerosis is a common feature of many end-stage renal diseases. The contribution of cellular immune mechanisms has been implicated in the development of glomerulosclerosis. We investigated whether the inhibition of lymphocyte activation influences this process in an established rat model of renal hyperfiltration. Methods: After removal of two-thirds of their respective kidney mass, rats were treated with either tacrolimus (0.08 mg/kg/day) or vehicle until the end of the study (n = 10/group). The rats were pair-fed and proteinuria was assessed regularly. Twenty weeks after nephrectomy, creatinine clearance and systemic blood pressure were determined, and kidneys were harvested for morphological, immunohistological and PCR analysis. Results: In control animals, renal function started to decline from week 12, as indicated by an elevated proteinuria. Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-2 receptor synthesis was upregulated in control animals and inhibited by tacrolimus treatment. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β<sub>1</sub>), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA levels were upregulated in control animals, but were significantly lower in immunosuppressed hosts. Additionally, tacrolimus treatment resulted in a significant reduction of proteinuria. Morphological analysis supported these functional results; glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and intimal proliferation were more pronounced in controls than in the tacrolimus group. These morphological parameters were accompanied by reduced infiltration of CD5+ (rat T-cell marker) T cells, ED1+ (rat macrophage marker) macrophages, and less intense staining for laminin and fibronectin. Conclusion: A continuous treatment with tacrolimus – an inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation – reduced the pace of glomerulosclerosis in the remnant kidney.

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          Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates renal injury in the rat remnant kidney.

          Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation, has been used to prevent allograft rejection. We investigated whether MMF also limits progressive renal injury in rats with 5/6 renal ablation, a model not primarily related to immunologic mechanisms. Eighty-eight adult male Munich-Wistar rats underwent ablation and received either vehicle (N = 42) or oral MMF (N = 46), 10 mg/kg/day. Forty-seven sham-operated rats were also studied. Thirty days after surgery, remnant kidneys exhibited glomerular hypertension and hypertrophy. MMF treatment did not correct these abnormalities. Immunohistochemistry revealed interstitial lymphocyte infiltration 7 and 30 days after ablation. Proliferating cells abounded seven days after ablation, especially in tubules, declining in number along the following weeks. By contrast, the number of macrophages was moderately increased in the first weeks, attaining values eightfold as high as control 60 days after ablation. MMF attenuated these cellular events at all phases of the study. Sixty days after ablation, marked albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial expansion were prominent in untreated rats. MMF treatment largely attenuated glomerular and interstitial injury without changing proteinuria. This is the first evidence that MMF may impact favorably on progressive renal diseases of "nonimmunologic" origin.
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            Differential regulation of transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 2 genes in human T cells: demonstration by usage of novel competitor DNA constructs in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction

            The regulation of mRNA encoding transforming growth factor beta (TGF- beta) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in normal human T cells was explored using novel competitor DNA constructs in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and accessory cell-independent T cell activation models. Our experimental design revealed the following: (a) TGF-beta mRNA and IL-2 mRNA are regulated differentially in normal human T cells, quiescent or signaled with the synergistic combinations of: sn-1,2- dioctanoylglycerol and ionomycin or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and anti-CD2 mAb; (b) the steady-state level of TGF-beta mRNA in the stimulated T cells, in contrast to that of IL-2 mRNA, is increased by the immunosuppressant cyclosporine (CsA); and (c) the paradoxical effect of CsA on TGF-beta mRNA levels is also appreciable at the level of production of functionally active TGF-beta protein. Our findings, in addition to demonstrating the utility of the competitor DNA constructs for the precise quantification of immunoregulatory cytokines, suggest a novel and unifying mechanistic basis for the immunosuppression and some of the complications (e.g., renal fibrosis) associated with CsA usage.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              EXN
              Nephron Exp Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.1660-2129
              Cardiorenal Medicine
              S. Karger AG
              1660-2129
              2001
              April 2001
              11 January 2001
              : 9
              : 2
              : 133-141
              Affiliations
              Departments of aNephrology and bShock and Multiorgan Failure, University Hospital, Essen, Germany and cInstitute of Pathophysiology, Semmelweis University Medical School, Budapest, Hungary
              Article
              52604 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:133–141
              10.1159/000052604
              11150862
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 54, Pages: 9
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52604
              Categories
              Original Paper

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