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      Resistance pattern and distribution of carbapenemase and antiseptic resistance genes among multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from intensive care unit patients

      1 , 1 , 1 , 2

      Journal of Medical Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

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          The epidemiology and control of Acinetobacter baumannii in health care facilities.

          Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen capable of causing both community and health care-associated infections (HAIs), although HAIs are the most common form. This organism has emerged recently as a major cause of HAI because of the extent of its antimicrobial resistance and its propensity to cause large, often multifacility, nosocomial outbreaks. The occurrence of outbreak is facilitated by both tolerance to desiccation and multidrug resistance, contributing to the maintenance of these organisms in the hospital environment. In addition, the epidemiology of A. baumannii infection is often complex, with the coexistence of epidemic and endemic infections, the latter of which often is favored by the selection pressure of antimicrobials. The only good news is that potentially severe A. baumannii infection, such as bacteremia or pneumonia in patients in the intensive care unit who are undergoing intubation, do not seem to be associated with a higher attributable mortality rate or an increased length of hospital stay.
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            Emergence of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii in Europe: clinical impact and therapeutic options.

            Despite having a reputation of low virulence, Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen responsible for community- and hospital-acquired infections that are difficult to control and treat. Interest in this pathogen emerged about one decade ago because of its natural MDR phenotype, its capability of acquiring new mechanisms of resistance and the existence of nosocomial outbreaks. Recent advances in molecular biology, including full genome sequencing of several A. baumannii isolates, has led to the discovery of the extraordinary plasticity of their genomes, which is linked to their great propensity to adapt to any environment, including hospitals. In this context, as well as the increasing antimicrobial resistance amongst A. baumannii isolates to the last-line antibiotics carbapenems and colistin, therapeutic options are very limited or absent in some cases of infections with pandrug-resistant bacteria. However, a large proportion of patients may be colonised by such MDR bacteria without any sign of infection, leading to a recurrent question for clinicians as to whether antibiotic treatment should be given and will be effective in the presence of resistance mechanisms. The worldwide emergence of A. baumannii strains resistant to colistin is worrying and the increasing use of colistin to treat infections caused by MDR bacteria will inevitably increase the recovery rate of colistin-resistant isolates in the future. Current knowledge about A. baumannii, including biological and epidemiological aspects as well as resistance to antibiotics and antibiotic therapy, are reviewed in this article, in addition to therapeutic recommendations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
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              Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species

              The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis , suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis , and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                October 01 2018
                October 01 2018
                : 67
                : 10
                : 1467-1473
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1​Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
                [2 ] 2​Social Security Organization, Aalinasab Hospital, Tabriz, Iran
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000826
                © 2018

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