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      Secreción extrahipofisaria de prolactina: Revisión

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          Null mutation of the prolactin receptor gene produces multiple reproductive defects in the mouse.

          Mice carrying a germ-line null mutation of the prolactin receptor gene have been produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Heterozygous females showed almost complete failure of lactation attributable to greatly reduced mammary gland development after their first, but not subsequent, pregnancies. Homozygous females were sterile owing to a complete failure of embryonic implantation. Moreover, they presented multiple reproductive abnormalities, including irregular cycles, reduced fertilization rates, defective preimplantation embryonic development, and lack of pseudopregnancy. Half of the homozygous males were infertile or showed reduced fertility. This work establishes the prolactin receptor as a key regulator of mammalian reproduction, and provides the first total ablation model to further study the role of the prolactin receptor and its ligands.
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            Extrapituitary prolactin: distribution, regulation, functions, and clinical aspects.

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              Regulation of pigeon cropmilk secretion and parental behaviors by prolactin.

              Prolactin stimulates the growth and development of specialized epithelial cells lining the cropsac of pigeons and doves (family Columbidae), leading to formation of "cropmilk," which is fed to the newly hatched squab. This system of milk feeding is unique among birds. To support the feeding of cropmilk, a complex array of behavioral adaptations are also supported by high levels of prolactin secretion in columbids during parenting. These specializations include elevated food intake (hyperphagia), nest attendance, and regurgitation feeding of the squab. Although prolactin is clearly important for these behavioral adaptations, the precise physiological and mechanistic bases for these behavioral effects remain controversial. The molecular mechanisms of prolactin action in the cropsac epithelium have been studied by cloning prolactin-induced genes, by cloning and expressing the pigeon prolactin receptor, and by analyzing the transcription factors that are activated after prolactin treatment. The avian (pigeon) prolactin receptor is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily and uniquely contains a complete duplication of the extracellular ligand-binding domain. One of the early signal-transducing actions of prolactin in cropsac epithelium is the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins via tyrosine phosphorylation. This fundamental signaling pathway is shared with mammalian prolactin target tissues. The convergent evolution of milk feeding and the behaviors that support parenting in columbids and mammals has depended on adaptation of both conserved mechanisms and divergent physiological processes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                og
                Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela
                Rev Obstet Ginecol Venez
                Sociedad de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela (Caracas )
                0048-7732
                January 2004
                : 64
                : 1
                : 23-31
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad del Zulia
                Article
                S0048-77322004000100004
                ccc2a194-ac17-4705-9743-2b88998d8c04

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0048-7732&lng=en
                Categories
                OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Obstetrics & Gynecology

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