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      Clinical Management of Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

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          Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls

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              A meta-analysis of the prevalence of dental agenesis of permanent teeth.

              To gain more insight into the prevalence of dental agenesis. Data from Caucasian populations in North America, Australia and Europe were included in a meta-analysis. For the prevalence of African American, Chinese and Arab groups only indications could be reported because of a limited number of studies. Agenesis differs by continent and gender: the prevalence for both sexes was higher in Europe (males 4.6%; females 6.3%) and Australia (males 5.5%; females 7.6%) than for North American Caucasians (males 3.2%; females 4.6%). In addition, the prevalence of dental agenesis in females was 1.37 times higher than in males. The mandibular second premolar was the most affected tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor and the maxillary second premolar. The occurrence of dental agenesis was divided into three main groups: common (P2(i) > I2(s) > P2(s)), less common (I1(i) > I2(i) & P1(s) > C(s) & M2(i)) and rare (M2(s) & M1(s) > C(i) > M1(i) & I1(s)). Unilateral occurrence of dental agenesis is more common than bilateral occurrence. However, bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors is more common than unilateral agenesis. The overall prevalence of agenesis in the maxilla is comparable with that in the mandible, but a marked difference was found between both jaws regarding tooth type. Absence of one or two permanent teeth is found in 83% of the subjects with dental agenesis. A practical application of the results of the meta-analysis is the estimation of dental treatment need. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Endocrine Reviews
                The Endocrine Society
                0163-769X
                1945-7189
                April 2019
                April 01 2019
                January 29 2019
                April 2019
                April 01 2019
                January 29 2019
                : 40
                : 2
                : 669-710
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Paris-Sud, Paris-Sud Medical School, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
                [2 ]Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Bicêtre Hôpital, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
                [3 ]INSERM Unité 1185, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
                [4 ]Service of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolism, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [5 ]Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [6 ]Children’s Hospital, Pediatric Research Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
                [7 ]Translational Stem Cell Biology and Metabolism Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                Article
                10.1210/er.2018-00116
                © 2019

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