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      Advances and Prospects of Phenolic Acids Production, Biorefinery and Analysis


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          Biotechnological production of phenolic acids is attracting increased interest due to their superior antioxidant activity, as well as other antimicrobial, dietary, and health benefits. As secondary metabolites, primarily found in plants and fungi, they are effective free radical scavengers due to the phenolic group available in their structure. Therefore, phenolic acids are widely utilised by pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and chemical industries. A demand for phenolic acids is mostly satisfied by utilising chemically synthesised compounds, with only a low quantity obtained from natural sources. As an alternative to chemical synthesis, environmentally friendly bio-based technologies are necessary for development in large-scale production. One of the most promising sustainable technologies is the utilisation of microbial cell factories for biosynthesis of phenolic acids. In this paper, we perform a systematic comparison of the best known natural sources of phenolic acids. The advances and prospects in the development of microbial cell factories for biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds are discussed in more detail. A special consideration is given to the modern production methods and analytics of phenolic acids.

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          Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs

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            Abscisic Acid and abiotic stress signaling.

            Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis.
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              Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents.

              Total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and phenolic content of 26 common spice extracts from 12 botanical families were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major phenolics in the spice extracts were systematically conducted by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Many spices contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated high antioxidant capacity. Wide variation in TEAC values (0.55-168.7 mmol/100 g) and total phenolic content (0.04-14.38 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) was observed. A highly positive linear relationship (R2= 0.95) obtained between TEAC values and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds in the tested spices contributed significantly to their antioxidant capacity. Major types of phenolic constituents identified in the spice extracts were phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids, and volatile oils (e.g., aromatic compounds). Rosmarinic acid was the dominant phenolic compound in the six spices of the family Labiatae. Phenolic volatile oils were the principal active ingredients in most spices. The spices and related families with the highest antioxidant capacity were screened, e.g., clove in the Myrtaceae, cinnamon in the Lauraceae, oregano in the Labiatae, etc., representing potential sources of potent natural antioxidants for commercial exploitation. This study provides direct comparative data on antioxidant capacity and total and individual phenolics contents of the 26 spice extracts.

                Author and article information

                06 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 10
                : 6
                : 874
                Bioprocess Research Centre, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilėnų pl. 19, Kaunas LT-50254, Lithuania; egle.valanciene@ 123456ktu.lt (E.V.); ilona.jonuskiene@ 123456ktu.lt (I.J.); michail.syrpas@ 123456ktu.lt (M.S.); ernesta.augustiniene@ 123456ktu.lt (E.A.); paulius.matulis@ 123456ktu.lt (P.M.); andrius.simonavicius@ 123456ktu.lt (A.S.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: naglis.malys@ 123456ktu.lt
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 30 April 2020
                : 03 June 2020

                phenolic acid,antioxidant activity,biorefinery,extraction,analytical methods,metabolic engineering,microbial fermentation,biosensor


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