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      Utility of the DNA barcoding gene fragment for parasitic wasp phylogeny (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea): data release and new measure of taxonomic congruence : CO1 BARCODING AND PARASITOID PHYLOGENY

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          Abstract

          The enormous cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence database being assembled from the various DNA barcoding projects as well as from independent phylogenetic studies constitutes an almost unprecedented amount of data for molecular systematics, in addition to its role in species identification and discovery. As part of a study of the potential of this gene fragment to improve the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions, and in particular, exploring the effects of dense taxon sampling, we have assembled a data set for the hyperdiverse, cosmopolitan parasitic wasp superfamily Ichneumonoidea, including the release of 1793 unpublished sequences. Of approximately 84 currently recognized Ichneumonoidea subfamilies, 2500 genera and 41,000 described species, barcoding 5'-COI data were assembled for 4168 putative species-level terminals (many undescribed), representing 671 genera and all but ten of the currently recognized subfamilies. After the removal of identical and near-identical sequences, the 4174 initial sequences were reduced to 3278. We show that when subjected to phylogenetic analysis using both maximum likelihood and parsimony, there is a broad correlation between taxonomic congruence and number of included sequences. We additionally present a new measure of taxonomic congruence based upon the Simpson diversity index, the Simpson dominance index, which gives greater weight to morphologically recognized taxonomic groups (subfamilies) recovered with most representatives in one or a few contiguous groups or subclusters. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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          Distinguishing homologous from analogous proteins.

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            Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections.

            We DNA barcoded 2,597 parasitoid wasps belonging to 6 microgastrine braconid genera reared from parapatric tropical dry forest, cloud forest, and rain forest in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica and combined these data with records of caterpillar hosts and morphological analyses. We asked whether barcoding and morphology discover the same provisional species and whether the biological entities revealed by our analysis are congruent with wasp host specificity. Morphological analysis revealed 171 provisional species, but barcoding exposed an additional 142 provisional species; 95% of the total is likely to be undescribed. These 313 provisional species are extraordinarily host specific; more than 90% attack only 1 or 2 species of caterpillars out of more than 3,500 species sampled. The most extreme case of overlooked diversity is the morphospecies Apanteles leucostigmus. This minute black wasp with a distinctive white wing stigma was thought to parasitize 32 species of ACG hesperiid caterpillars, but barcoding revealed 36 provisional species, each attacking one or a very few closely related species of caterpillars. When host records and/or within-ACG distributions suggested that DNA barcoding had missed a species-pair, or when provisional species were separated only by slight differences in their barcodes, we examined nuclear sequences to test hypotheses of presumptive species boundaries and to further probe host specificity. Our iterative process of combining morphological analysis, ecology, and DNA barcoding and reiteratively using specimens maintained in permanent collections has resulted in a much more fine-scaled understanding of parasitoid diversity and host specificity than any one of these elements could have produced on its own.
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              DNA barcodes affirm that 16 species of apparently generalist tropical parasitoid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae) are not all generalists.

              Many species of tachinid flies are viewed as generalist parasitoids because what is apparently a single species of fly has been reared from many species of caterpillars. However, an ongoing inventory of the tachinid flies parasitizing thousands of species of caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, has encountered >400 species of specialist tachinids with only a few generalists. We DNA-barcoded 2,134 flies belonging to what appeared to be the 16 most generalist of the reared tachinid morphospecies and encountered 73 mitochondrial lineages separated by an average of 4% sequence divergence. These lineages are supported by collateral ecological information and, where tested, by independent nuclear markers (28S and ITS1), and we therefore view these lineages as provisional species. Each of the 16 apparently generalist species dissolved into one of four patterns: (i) a single generalist species, (ii) a pair of morphologically cryptic generalist species, (iii) a complex of specialist species plus a generalist, or (iv) a complex of specialists with no remaining generalist. In sum, there remained 9 generalist species among the 73 mitochondrial lineages we analyzed, demonstrating that a generalist lifestyle is possible for a tropical caterpillar parasitoid fly. These results reinforce the emerging suspicion that estimates of global species richness are likely underestimates for parasitoids (which may constitute as much as 20% of all animal life) and that the strategy of being a tropical generalist parasitic fly may be yet more unusual than has been envisioned for tachinids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Ecology Resources
                Wiley
                1755098X
                July 2012
                July 2012
                April 09 2012
                : 12
                : 4
                : 676-685
                Article
                10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03143.x
                22487608
                © 2012

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