Objective Since the inefficient cancer management is caused by inaccurate diagnoses, there is a need for minimally invasive method to improve the diagnostic accuracy of non-small-cell lung (NSCLC). This study intended to detect miR-340 and miR-450b-5p levels in plasma from NSCLC patients and to assess the potential values for the prediction of tumor development and prognosis. Methods A GSE64591 dataset included 200 samples (100 early-stage NSCLC patients and 100 noncancer control) aimed to identify a panel of circulating miRNAs in plasma. The levels of miR-340 and miR-450b-5p in plasma from NSCLC patients ( n = 120) and healthy controls ( n = 120) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma miR-340 and miR-450b-5p were performed using receiver operating curves (ROC), Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression analysis. Results miR-450b-5p and miR-340 in plasma was significant difference between early-stage NSCLC patients and noncancer control by searching the GSE64591 dataset. When compared with the healthy controls, the plasma miR-340 was decreased in the NSCLC patients, but the plasma miR-450b-5p was increased. NSCLC patients could be distinguished accurately from healthy controls by the circulating miR-340 and miR-450b-5p with the AUC of 0.740 (95% CI: 0.677~0.804) and of 0.808 (95% CI: 0.754~0.861), respectively. With these two markers, the specificity and sensitivity were 78.33% and 77.5% with the AUC of 0.862. Patients with advanced T, N, and TNM stage demonstrated lower plasma miR-340 and higher plasma miR-450b-5p, and both of them were correlated with the prognosis of NSCLC patients. Furthermore, plasma miR-340 was also negatively correlated with tumor grade. All clinicopathological variables significantly associated to prognosis were T stage, N stage, TNM stage, tumor grade, and plasma levels of miR-340 and miR-450b-5p in univariate Cox regression analysis. The variables that retained their significance in the multivariate model were T stage, plasma miR-340, and plasma miR-450b-5p. Conclusion The plasma levels of miR-340 combined with miR-450b-5p potentially define core biomarker signatures for improving the accuracy of NSCLC diagnosis. Moreover, circulating miR-340 and miR-450b-5p are independent biomarkers of survival in nonmetastatic NSCLC patients.