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      Vaccine technologies: From whole organisms to rationally designed protein assemblies

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          Abstract

          Vaccines have been the single most significant advancement in public health, preventing morbidity and mortality in millions of people annually. Vaccine development has traditionally focused on whole organism vaccines, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccines. While successful for many different infectious diseases whole organisms are expensive to produce, require culture of the infectious agent, and have the potential to cause vaccine associated disease in hosts. With advancing technology and a desire to develop safe, cost effective vaccine candidates, the field began to focus on the development of recombinantly expressed antigens known as subunit vaccines. While more tolerable, subunit vaccines tend to be less immunogenic. Attempts have been made to increase immunogenicity with the addition of adjuvants, either immunostimulatory molecules or an antigen delivery system that increases immune responses to vaccines. An area of extreme interest has been the application of nanotechnology to vaccine development, which allows for antigens to be expressed on a particulate delivery system. One of the most exciting examples of nanovaccines are rationally designed protein nanoparticles. These nanoparticles use some of the basic tenants of structural biology, biophysical chemistry, and vaccinology to develop protective, safe, and easily manufactured vaccines. Rationally developed nanoparticle vaccines are one of the most promising candidates for the future of vaccine development.

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          Most cited references 167

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          Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly.

          Two complementary strategies can be used in the fabrication of molecular biomaterials. In the 'top-down' approach, biomaterials are generated by stripping down a complex entity into its component parts (for example, paring a virus particle down to its capsid to form a viral cage). This contrasts with the 'bottom-up' approach, in which materials are assembled molecule by molecule (and in some cases even atom by atom) to produce novel supramolecular architectures. The latter approach is likely to become an integral part of nanomaterials manufacture and requires a deep understanding of individual molecular building blocks and their structures, assembly properties and dynamic behaviors. Two key elements in molecular fabrication are chemical complementarity and structural compatibility, both of which confer the weak and noncovalent interactions that bind building blocks together during self-assembly. Using natural processes as a guide, substantial advances have been achieved at the interface of nanomaterials and biology, including the fabrication of nanofiber materials for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering, the assembly of peptide or protein nanotubes and helical ribbons, the creation of living microlenses, the synthesis of metal nanowires on DNA templates, the fabrication of peptide, protein and lipid scaffolds, the assembly of electronic materials by bacterial phage selection, and the use of radiofrequency to regulate molecular behaviors.
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            Self-assembling influenza nanoparticle vaccines elicit broadly neutralizing H1N1 antibodies.

            Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to the public and are a burden on global health systems. Each year, influenza vaccines must be rapidly produced to match circulating viruses, a process constrained by dated technology and vulnerable to unexpected strains emerging from humans and animal reservoirs. Here we use knowledge of protein structure to design self-assembling nanoparticles that elicit broader and more potent immunity than traditional influenza vaccines. The viral haemagglutinin was genetically fused to ferritin, a protein that naturally forms nanoparticles composed of 24 identical polypeptides. Haemagglutinin was inserted at the interface of adjacent subunits so that it spontaneously assembled and generated eight trimeric viral spikes on its surface. Immunization with this influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres more than tenfold higher than those from the licensed inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, it elicited neutralizing antibodies to two highly conserved vulnerable haemagglutinin structures that are targets of universal vaccines: the stem and the receptor binding site on the head. Antibodies elicited by a 1999 haemagglutinin-nanoparticle vaccine neutralized H1N1 viruses from 1934 to 2007 and protected ferrets from an unmatched 2007 H1N1 virus challenge. This structure-based, self-assembling synthetic nanoparticle vaccine improves the potency and breadth of influenza virus immunity, and it provides a foundation for building broader vaccine protection against emerging influenza viruses and other pathogens.
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              The vaccine adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A as a TRIF-biased agonist of TLR4.

              The inflammatory toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of bacterial cell walls, is driven by the adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), which together mediate signaling by the endotoxin receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a low-toxicity derivative of LPS with useful immunostimulatory properties, which is nearing regulatory approval for use as a human vaccine adjuvant. We report here that, in mice, the low toxicity of MPLA's adjuvant function is associated with a bias toward TRIF signaling, which we suggest is likely caused by the active suppression, rather than passive loss, of proinflammatory activity of this LPS derivative. This finding may have important implications for the development of future vaccine adjuvants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biochem Pharmacol
                Biochem. Pharmacol
                Biochemical Pharmacology
                Elsevier Science
                0006-2952
                1873-2968
                6 May 2016
                15 November 2016
                6 May 2016
                : 120
                : 1-14
                Affiliations
                [a ]The Institute of Materials Science, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States
                [b ]Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, 93 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: The Institute of Materials Science, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. peter.burkhard@ 123456uconn.edu
                Article
                S0006-2952(16)30074-0
                10.1016/j.bcp.2016.05.001
                5079805
                27157411
                © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                vaccine, nanoparticles, sapn, rationally designed, adjuvant

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