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      Evaluating Illumina-, Nanopore-, and PacBio-based genome assembly strategies with the bald notothen, Trematomus borchgrevinki

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          Abstract

          For any genome-based research, a robust genome assembly is required. De novo assembly strategies have evolved with changes in DNA sequencing technologies and have been through at least 3 phases: (1) short-read only, (2) short- and long-read hybrid, and (3) long-read only assemblies. Each of the phases has its own error model. We hypothesized that hidden short-read scaffolding errors and erroneous long-read contigs degrade the quality of short- and long-read hybrid assemblies. We assembled the genome of Trematomus borchgrevinki from data generated during each of the 3 phases and assessed the quality problems we encountered. We developed strategies such as k-mer-assembled region replacement, parameter optimization, and long-read sampling to address the error models. We demonstrated that a k-mer-based strategy improved short-read assemblies as measured by Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog while mate-pair libraries introduced hidden scaffolding errors and perturbed Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog scores. Furthermore, we found that although hybrid assemblies can generate higher contiguity they tend to suffer from lower quality. In addition, we found long-read-only assemblies can be optimized for contiguity by subsampling length-restricted raw reads. Our results indicate that long-read contig assembly is the current best choice and that assemblies from phase I and phase II were of lower quality.

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          The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools

          Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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            SPAdes: a new genome assembly algorithm and its applications to single-cell sequencing.

            The lion's share of bacteria in various environments cannot be cloned in the laboratory and thus cannot be sequenced using existing technologies. A major goal of single-cell genomics is to complement gene-centric metagenomic data with whole-genome assemblies of uncultivated organisms. Assembly of single-cell data is challenging because of highly non-uniform read coverage as well as elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. We describe SPAdes, a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler (specialized for single-cell data) and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data). SPAdes generates single-cell assemblies, providing information about genomes of uncultivatable bacteria that vastly exceeds what may be obtained via traditional metagenomics studies. SPAdes is available online ( http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades ). It is distributed as open source software.
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              BLAST+: architecture and applications

              Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                G3 (Bethesda)
                Genetics
                g3journal
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Oxford University Press
                2160-1836
                November 2022
                29 July 2022
                29 July 2022
                : 12
                : 11
                : jkac192
                Affiliations
                Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign , Champaign, IL 61801, USA
                Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign , Champaign, IL 61801, USA
                Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign , Champaign, IL 61801, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA. Email: jcatchen@ 123456illinois.edu
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6597-4955
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6308-8685
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4798-660X
                Article
                jkac192
                10.1093/g3journal/jkac192
                9635638
                35904764
                cd1c96e7-c1f9-4738-a862-5f59d1effbd1
                © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 21 March 2022
                : 18 July 2022
                : 28 October 2022
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funded by: NSF OPP;
                Award ID: 1645087
                Categories
                Investigation
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01180
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01140
                AcademicSubjects/SCI00010
                AcademicSubjects/SCI00960

                Genetics
                genome assembly,k-mer analysis,short-read assembly,long-read assembly,notothenioids
                Genetics
                genome assembly, k-mer analysis, short-read assembly, long-read assembly, notothenioids

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