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      Dietary compounds and traditional Chinese medicine ameliorate type 2 diabetes by modulating gut microbiota

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
      Informa UK Limited

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          Abstract

          Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications are major public health concerns which strongly influence the quality of humans' life. Modification of gut microbiota has been widely used for the management of diabetes. In this review, the relationship between diabetes and gut microbiota, as well as the effects of different dietary components and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on gut microflora are summarized. Dietary compounds and TCM possessing bioactive components (fiber and phytochemicals) first change the composition of gut microbiota (inhibiting pathogens and promoting the beneficial bacteria growth) and then influence the production of their metabolites, which would further modify the intestinal environment through inhibiting the production of detrimental compounds (such as lipopolysaccharide, hydrogen sulfide, indol, etc.). Importantly, metabolites (short chain fatty acids and other bioactive components) fermented/degraded by gut microbiota can target multiple pathways in intestine, liver, pancreas, etc., resulting in the improvement of gut health, glycemic control, lipids profile, insulin resistance and inflammation. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between different dietary components and gut microbiota, as well as underlying mechanisms would help design different diet formula for the management of diabetes. Further researches could focus on the combination of different dietary components for preventing and treating diabetes, based on the principle of "multiple components against multiple targets" from the perspective of gut microbiota.

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          Dietary Fiber-Induced Improvement in Glucose Metabolism Is Associated with Increased Abundance of Prevotella.

          The gut microbiota plays an important role in human health by interacting with host diet, but there is substantial inter-individual variation in the response to diet. Here we compared the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects who exhibited improved glucose metabolism following 3-day consumption of barley kernel-based bread (BKB) with those who responded least to this dietary intervention. The Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio was higher in responders than non-responders after BKB. Metagenomic analysis showed that the gut microbiota of responders was enriched in Prevotella copri and had increased potential to ferment complex polysaccharides after BKB. Finally, germ-free mice transplanted with microbiota from responder human donors exhibited improved glucose metabolism and increased abundance of Prevotella and liver glycogen content compared with germ-free mice that received non-responder microbiota. Our findings indicate that Prevotella plays a role in the BKB-induced improvement in glucose metabolism observed in certain individuals, potentially by promoting increased glycogen storage.
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            Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health.

            The biological properties of dietary polyphenols are greatly dependent on their bioavailability that, in turn, is largely influenced by their degree of polymerization. The gut microbiota play a key role in modulating the production, bioavailability and, thus, the biological activities of phenolic metabolites, particularly after the intake of food containing high-molecular-weight polyphenols. In addition, evidence is emerging on the activity of dietary polyphenols on the modulation of the colonic microbial population composition or activity. However, although the great range of health-promoting activities of dietary polyphenols has been widely investigated, their effect on the modulation of the gut ecology and the two-way relationship "polyphenols ↔ microbiota" are still poorly understood. Only a few studies have examined the impact of dietary polyphenols on the human gut microbiota, and most were focused on single polyphenol molecules and selected bacterial populations. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and polyphenols, the mechanisms of action and the consequences of these interactions on human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Responses of Gut Microbiota and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism to Prebiotics in Genetic Obese and Diet-Induced Leptin-Resistant Mice

              OBJECTIVE To investigate deep and comprehensive analysis of gut microbial communities and biological parameters after prebiotic administration in obese and diabetic mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetic (ob/ob) or diet-induced obese and diabetic mice were chronically fed with prebiotic-enriched diet or with a control diet. Extensive gut microbiota analyses, including quantitative PCR, pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA, and phylogenetic microarrays, were performed in ob/ob mice. The impact of gut microbiota modulation on leptin sensitivity was investigated in diet-induced leptin-resistant mice. Metabolic parameters, gene expression, glucose homeostasis, and enteroendocrine-related L-cell function were documented in both models. RESULTS In ob/ob mice, prebiotic feeding decreased Firmicutes and increased Bacteroidetes phyla, but also changed 102 distinct taxa, 16 of which displayed a >10-fold change in abundance. In addition, prebiotics improved glucose tolerance, increased L-cell number and associated parameters (intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels), and reduced fat-mass development, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation. In high fat–fed mice, prebiotic treatment improved leptin sensitivity as well as metabolic parameters. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that specific gut microbiota modulation improves glucose homeostasis, leptin sensitivity, and target enteroendocrine cell activity in obese and diabetic mice. By profiling the gut microbiota, we identified a catalog of putative bacterial targets that may affect host metabolism in obesity and diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
                Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
                Informa UK Limited
                1040-8398
                1549-7852
                November 13 2018
                March 26 2019
                December 20 2018
                March 26 2019
                : 59
                : 6
                : 848-863
                Affiliations
                [1 ] State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, China-Canada Joint Lab of Food Science and Technology (Nanchang), Nanchang University, Nanchang, China
                Article
                10.1080/10408398.2018.1536646
                30569745
                cd1e8ce6-f5b0-4bbc-b28e-bee646e80896
                © 2019
                History

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