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      The Value of Greenspace Under Pandemic Lockdown

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          Abstract

          The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in unprecedented restrictions on citizen’s freedom of movement as governments moved to institute lockdowns designed to reduce the spread of the virus. While most out-of-home leisure activities were prohibited, in England the lockdown rules allowed for restricted use of outdoor greenspace for the purposes of exercise and recreation. In this paper, we use data recorded by Google from location-enabled mobile devices coupled with a detailed recreation demand model to explore the welfare impacts of those constraints on leisure activities. Our analyses reveals evidence of large-scale substitution of leisure time towards recreation in available greenspaces. Indeed, despite the restrictions the economic value of greenspace to the citizens of England fell by only £150 million over lockdown. Examining the outcomes of counterfactual policies we find that the imposition of stricter lockdown rules would have reduced welfare from greenspace by £1.14 billion. In contrast, more relaxed lockdown rules would have delivered an aggregate increase in the economic value of greenspace equal to £1.47 billion.

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          The Estimation of Choice Probabilities from Choice Based Samples

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            Applied Welfare Economics with Discrete Choice Models

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              On the ratio of two correlated normal random variables

               D. Hinkley (1969)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                brett.day@exeter.ac.uk
                Journal
                Environ Resour Econ (Dordr)
                Environ Resour Econ (Dordr)
                Environmental & Resource Economics
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0924-6460
                1573-1502
                4 August 2020
                4 August 2020
                : 1-25
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.8391.3, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8024, Land Environment Economics and Policy Institute, , Department of Economics, University of Exeter, ; Exeter, UK
                Article
                489
                10.1007/s10640-020-00489-y
                7399622
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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