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      Smartphone-based colorimetric detection systems for glucose monitoring in the diagnosis and management of diabetes

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          Smartphone-based colorimetric glucose detection methods have the advantageous combination of software and hardware systems that will revolutionize the concept of smartphone-based platforms from glucose measurement to personal health management.


          Diabetes is a group of metabolic conditions resulting in high blood sugar levels over prolonged periods that affects hundreds of millions of patients worldwide. Measuring glucose concentration enables patient-specific insulin therapy, and is essential to reduce the severity of the disease, potential complications, and related mortalities. Recent advances and developments in smartphone-based colorimetric glucose detection systems are discussed in this review. The importance of glucose monitoring, data collection, transfer, and analysis, via non-invasive/invasive methods is highlighted. The review also presents various approaches using 3D-printed materials, screen-printed electrodes, polymer templates, designs allowing multiple glucose analysis, bioanalytes and/or nanostructures for glucose detection. The positive effects of advances in improving the performance of smartphone-based platforms are introduced along with future directions and trends in the application of emerging technologies in smartphone-based diagnostics.

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          Most cited references144

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          Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

          Nanoparticles containing magnetic materials, such as magnetite (Fe3O4), are particularly useful for imaging and separation techniques. As these nanoparticles are generally considered to be biologically and chemically inert, they are typically coated with metal catalysts, antibodies or enzymes to increase their functionality as separation agents. Here, we report that magnetite nanoparticles in fact possess an intrinsic enzyme mimetic activity similar to that found in natural peroxidases, which are widely used to oxidize organic substrates in the treatment of wastewater or as detection tools. Based on this finding, we have developed a novel immunoassay in which antibody-modified magnetite nanoparticles provide three functions: capture, separation and detection. The stability, ease of production and versatility of these nanoparticles makes them a powerful tool for a wide range of potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and environmental chemistry.
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            Over the past few decades, researchers have established artificial enzymes as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to natural enzymes in a wide range of applications. A variety of materials including cyclodextrins, metal complexes, porphyrins, polymers, dendrimers and biomolecules have been extensively explored to mimic the structures and functions of naturally occurring enzymes. Recently, some nanomaterials have been found to exhibit unexpected enzyme-like activities, and great advances have been made in this area due to the tremendous progress in nano-research and the unique characteristics of nanomaterials. To highlight the progress in the field of nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes (nanozymes), this review discusses various nanomaterials that have been explored to mimic different kinds of enzymes. We cover their kinetics, mechanisms and applications in numerous fields, from biosensing and immunoassays, to stem cell growth and pollutant removal. We also summarize several approaches to tune the activities of nanozymes. Finally, we make comparisons between nanozymes and other catalytic materials (other artificial enzymes, natural enzymes, organic catalysts and nanomaterial-based catalysts) and address the current challenges and future directions (302 references).
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              Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiovascular surgery.


                Author and article information

                The Analyst
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                May 4 2021
                : 146
                : 9
                : 2784-2806
                [1 ]Department of Engineering Sciences
                [2 ]İzmir Katip Çelebi University
                [3 ]35620 Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
                [5 ]Department of Chemistry
                [6 ]Lancaster University
                [7 ]Lancaster
                [8 ]UK
                [9 ]Materials Science Institute
                © 2021




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