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      The ADaptation and Anticipation Model (ADAM) of sensorimotor synchronization


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          A constantly changing environment requires precise yet flexible timing of movements. Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS)—the temporal coordination of an action with events in a predictable external rhythm—is a fundamental human skill that contributes to optimal sensory-motor control in daily life. A large body of research related to SMS has focused on adaptive error correction mechanisms that support the synchronization of periodic movements (e.g., finger taps) with events in regular pacing sequences. The results of recent studies additionally highlight the importance of anticipatory mechanisms that support temporal prediction in the context of SMS with sequences that contain tempo changes. To investigate the role of adaptation and anticipatory mechanisms in SMS we introduce ADAM: an ADaptation and Anticipation Model. ADAM combines reactive error correction processes (adaptation) with predictive temporal extrapolation processes (anticipation) inspired by the computational neuroscience concept of internal models. The combination of simulations and experimental manipulations based on ADAM creates a novel and promising approach for exploring adaptation and anticipation in SMS. The current paper describes the conceptual basis and architecture of ADAM.

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          Most cited references75

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          The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations.

          The parieto-frontal cortical circuit that is active during action observation is the circuit with mirror properties that has been most extensively studied. Yet, there remains controversy on its role in social cognition and its contribution to understanding the actions and intentions of other individuals. Recent studies in monkeys and humans have shed light on what the parieto-frontal cortical circuit encodes and its possible functional relevance for cognition. We conclude that, although there are several mechanisms through which one can understand the behaviour of other individuals, the parieto-frontal mechanism is the only one that allows an individual to understand the action of others 'from the inside' and gives the observer a first-person grasp of the motor goals and intentions of other individuals.
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            Sensorimotor synchronization: a review of recent research (2006-2012).

            Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is the coordination of rhythmic movement with an external rhythm, ranging from finger tapping in time with a metronome to musical ensemble performance. An earlier review (Repp, 2005) covered tapping studies; two additional reviews (Repp, 2006a, b) focused on music performance and on rate limits of SMS, respectively. The present article supplements and extends these earlier reviews by surveying more recent research in what appears to be a burgeoning field. The article comprises four parts, dealing with (1) conventional tapping studies, (2) other forms of moving in synchrony with external rhythms (including dance and nonhuman animals' synchronization abilities), (3) interpersonal synchronization (including musical ensemble performance), and (4) the neuroscience of SMS. It is evident that much new knowledge about SMS has been acquired in the last 7 years.
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              Control of mental activities by internal models in the cerebellum.

              Masao ITO (2008)
              The intricate neuronal circuitry of the cerebellum is thought to encode internal models that reproduce the dynamic properties of body parts. These models are essential for controlling the movement of these body parts: they allow the brain to precisely control the movement without the need for sensory feedback. It is thought that the cerebellum might also encode internal models that reproduce the essential properties of mental representations in the cerebral cortex. This hypothesis suggests a possible mechanism by which intuition and implicit thought might function and explains some of the symptoms that are exhibited by psychiatric patients. This article examines the conceptual bases and experimental evidence for this hypothesis.

                Author and article information

                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                06 April 2013
                10 June 2013
                : 7
                : 253
                [1] 1Max Planck Research Group “Music Cognition and Action”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Germany
                [2] 2Music Cognition and Action Group, The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney Sydney, NSW, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Eckart Altenmüller, University of Music and Drama Hannover, Germany

                Reviewed by: Ivana Konvalinka, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Cordula Vesper, Central European University, Hungary

                *Correspondence: M. C. (Marieke) van der Steen, Max Planck Research Group “Music Cognition and Action”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstr. 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany e-mail: steen@ 123456cbs.mpg.de
                Copyright © 2013 van der Steen and Keller.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

                : 15 March 2013
                : 21 May 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 8, References: 107, Pages: 15, Words: 12929
                Hypothesis and Theory Article

                sensorimotor synchronization,computational model,temporal adaptation,error correction,temporal anticipation,predictive internal models


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