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      The first description of the nymphal stages of Hoplopleura longula (Psocodea: Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) from the harvest mouse Micromys minutus (Rodentia: Muridae)

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          Abstract

          Background

          Despite the widespread belief that an extensive body of knowledge exists for the sucking lice ( Anoplura ), some of their common, Eurasian or even cosmopolitan species still lack complete taxonomic descriptions, especially those for their nymphal stages. This applies especially to the most common rodent parasites: the lice of the genus Hoplopleura . In Europe, only two of the five most common Hoplopleura species have full taxonomic characteristics with a description of the nymphal stages. This study enriches the current state of knowledge for another species, Hoplopleura longula and presents the first description of its nymphal stages.

          The study includes five rare louse specimens (two nymphs I, one nymph II, two nymphs III) of H. longula collected from 63 Eurasian harvest mice Micromys minutus . The collected lice were fixed and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol solution and then placed in polyvinyl-lactophenol to form total preparations.

          New information

          Only two of the five species found in Eurasia ( H. acanthopus , H. affinis , H. captiosa , H. edentula and H. longula ) have been given full taxonomic descriptions, including immature stages. This paper presents a description of the nymphal stages of H. longula (described for the first time).

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          Most cited references 33

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          Potential role of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, as vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii.

           N Leo,  D. Robinson,  P Prociv (2003)
          Since the pioneering work of Charles Nicolle in 1909 [see Gross (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:10539-10540] most medical officers and scientists have assumed that body lice are the sole vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii, the aetiological agent of louse-borne epidemic typhus (LBET). Here we review the evidence for the axiom that head lice are not involved in epidemics of LBET. Laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of head lice to transmit R. prowazekii, but evidence for this in the field has not been reported. However, the assumption that head lice do not transmit R. prowazekii has meant that head lice have not been examined for R. prowazekii during epidemics of LBET. The strong association between obvious (high) infestations of body lice and LBET has contributed to this perception, but this association does not preclude head lice as vectors of R. prowazekii. Indeed, where the prevalence and intensity of body louse infections may be high (e.g. during epidemics of LBET), the prevalence and intensity of head louse infestations is generally high as well. This review of the epidemiology of head louse and body louse infestations, and of LBET, indicates that head lice are potential vectors of R. prowazekii in the field. Simple observations in the field would reveal whether or not head lice are natural vectors of this major human pathogen.
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            Body lice as tools for diagnosis and surveillance of reemerging diseases.

            Body lice are vectors of three bacteria which cause human disease: Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of epidemic typhus; Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever; and Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever. A recrudescence of body lice is being observed as the numbers of individuals living under social conditions which predispose individuals to infestation have increased. Because this phenomenon may lead to the reemergence of infections transmitted by body lice, we aimed to assess the occurrence and prevalence of the three agents described above in more than 600 body lice collected from infested individuals in the African countries of Congo, Zimbabwe, and Burundi, in France, in Russia, and in Peru. The presence of the three bacteria in each louse was determined by specific PCR amplification, and the identities of the organisms detected were confirmed by determination of the nucleotide base sequences of the amplification products. Using this approach, we were able to confirm the presence of R. prowazekii in lice collected from refugees in Burundi, among whom typhus was epidemic, and the presence of B. quintana in lice collected from all locations except the Congo. B. recurrentis was never found. Molecular approaches are convenient tools for the detection and identification of bacterial DNA in body lice and for the epidemiological study of louse-borne bacteria from countries where no medical and biological laboratory facilities are available.
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              The family classification of the Anoplura

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2021
                19 April 2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] University of Gdansk, Faculty of Biology, Gdansk, Poland University of Gdansk, Faculty of Biology Gdansk Poland
                [2 ] Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences, Bialowieza, Poland Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences Bialowieza Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Paulina Kozina ( paulina.kozina@ 123456ug.edu.pl ).

                Academic editor: Vincent Smith

                Article
                63747 15759
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e63747
                8076165
                33911917
                Paulina Kozina, Joanna N. Izdebska, Rafal Kowalczyk

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, References: 32
                Funding
                This work was supported by the University of Gdansk [grant number 538-L114-B587-14].
                Categories
                Single Taxon Treatment
                Hoplopleuridae
                Taxonomy
                Parasitology

                taxonomy, mammals, parasite, rodents, sucking lice

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