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      An own-age bias in face recognition for children and older adults.

      1 ,
      Psychonomic bulletin & review

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          Abstract

          In the present study, we examined whether children and older adults exhibit an own-age face recognition bias. Participants studied photographs of children, younger adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults and were administered a recognition test. Results showed that both children and older adults more accurately recognized own-age faces than other-age faces. These data suggest that individuals may acquire expertise for identifying faces from their own age group and are discussed in terms of Sporer's (2001) in-group/out-group model of face recognition.

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          Most cited references24

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          Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review.

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            A unified account of the effects of distinctiveness, inversion, and race in face recognition.

            A framework is outlined in which individual faces are assumed to be encoded as a point in a multidimensional space, defined by dimensions that serve to discriminate faces. It is proposed that such a framework can account for the effects of distinctiveness, inversion, and race on recognition of faces. Two specific models within this framework are identified: a norm-based coding model, in which faces are encoded as vectors from a population norm or prototype, and a purely exemplar-based model. Both models make similar predictions, albeit in different ways, concerning the interactions between the effects of distinctiveness, inversion and race. These predictions were supported in five experiments in which photographs of faces served as stimuli. The norm-based coding version and the exemplar-based version of the framework cannot be distinguished on the basis of the experiments reported, but it is argued that a multidimensional space provides a useful heuristic framework to investigate recognition of faces. Finally, the relationship between the specific models is considered and an implementation in terms of parallel distributed processing is briefly discussed.
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              Race as a visual feature: using visual search and perceptual discrimination tasks to understand face categories and the cross-race recognition deficit.

              One of the most familiar empirical phenomena associated with face recognition is the cross-race (CR) recognition deficit whereby people have difficulty recognizing members of a race different from their own. Most researchers assume that the CR deficit is caused by failure to generalize perceptual encoding expertise from same-race (SR) faces to CR faces. However, this explanation ignores critical differences in the social cognitions and feature coding priorities associated with SR and CR faces. On the basis of data from visual search and perceptual discrimination tasks, it appears that the deficit occurs because people emphasize visual information specifying race at the expense of individuating information when recognizing CR faces. In particular, it is possible to observe a paradoxical improvement in both detection and perceptual discrimination accuracy for CR faces that is limited to those who recognize them poorly. These findings support a new explanation for the CR recognition deficit based on feature coding differences between CR and SR faces, and appear incompatible with similarity-based models of face categories.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychon Bull Rev
                Psychonomic bulletin & review
                1069-9384
                1069-9384
                Dec 2005
                : 12
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Social and Behavioral Sciences, Arizona State University at the West Campus, Glendale 85306, USA. jeff.anastasi@asu.edu
                Article
                16615326
                cd3a2488-08a7-41dc-a90d-859ed3ac9001

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