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      The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis Delta Virus in HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients in Shiraz, Iran, 2012

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          Evidence has shown that liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses can be more aggressive and severe in HIV infected subjects. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HDV infection among HIV/HBV co-infected clients in Shiraz, southwest Iran. In this study, 178 patients co-infected with HBV and HIV individuals were enrolled. The diagnosis of HIV infection was documented based on serological assays. The demographic and complementary data were collected by a questionnaire. HBsAg and HDV Ab were detected by commercial quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also measured. The mean age of the participants was 37.4±7.4 years (range 22-63). 175 (98.4 %) patients were male and 3 (1.6 %) were female. Among 178 patients co-infected with HIV/HBV, 35 cases (19.7%, 95% CI: 14%-25%) were anti-HDV‏ positive and 143 (80.3%) were negative for anti-HDV. HDV exposure in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was associated with blood transfusion (P=0.002, OR: 14.3) and prison history (P=0.01, OR: 2.31) but not with age, marital status, unsafe sex contact, and injection drug abuse. Our data showed a relatively high prevalence of HDV infection in HIV infected population in Shiraz, Iran. The high frequency of HDV Ab in patients with blood transfusion and prison history reveals that HDV transmission occurs more frequently in the parental route than sexual contacts; therefore, blood screening for HDV diagnosis in the high-risk group is recommended.

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          Epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of hepatitis D: update and challenges ahead.

          Hepatitis D is caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV) and is considered to be the most severe form of viral hepatitis in humans. Hepatitis D occurs only in individuals positive for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) as HDV is a defective RNA viroid that requires HBsAg for transmission. At least eight different HDV genotypes have been described and each has a characteristic geographic distribution and a distinct clinical course. HDV and HBV coinfection can be associated with complex and dynamic viral dominance patterns. Chronic HDV infection leads to more severe liver disease than HBV monoinfection and is associated with accelerated fibrosis progression, earlier hepatic decompensation and an increased risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. So far, only IFN-alpha treatment has proven antiviral activity against HDV in humans and has been linked to improved long-term outcomes. Studies conducted in the past 2 years on the use of PEG-IFN-alpha show that a sustained virologic response to therapy, measured in terms of undetectable serum HDV RNA levels, can be achieved in about one quarter of patients with hepatitis D. Novel alternative treatment options including prenylation inhibitors are awaiting clinical development for use in hepatitis D.
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            Viral hepatitis and HIV co-infection.

            Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is overall recognised in 10% of HIV+ persons worldwide, with large differences according to geographical region. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 25% of HIV+ individuals, with greater rates ( approximately 75%) in intravenous drug users and persons infected through contaminated blood or blood products. HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals show an accelerated course of liver disease, with faster progression to cirrhosis. The number of anti-HBV drugs has increased in the last few years, and some agents (e.g. lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir) also exert significant activity against HIV. Emergence of drug resistance challenges the long-term benefit of anti-HBV monotherapy, mainly with lamivudine. The results using new more potent anti-HBV drugs (e.g. tenofovir) are very promising, with prospects for stopping or even revert HBV-related liver damage in most cases. With respect to chronic hepatitis C, the combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin given for 1 year permits to achieve sustained HCV clearance in no more than 40% of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Thus, new direct anti-HCV drugs are eagerly awaited for this population. Although being a minority, HIV+ patients with delta hepatitis and those with multiple hepatitis show the worst prognosis. Appropriate diagnosis and monitoring of chronic viral hepatitis, including the use of non-invasive tools for assessing liver fibrosis and measurement of viral load, may allow to confront adequately chronic viral hepatitis in HIV+ patients, preventing the development of end-stage liver disease, for which the only option available is liver transplantation. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Hepatitis delta virus.

               Mark Taylor (2006)
              Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a sub-viral agent that is dependent for its life cycle on hepatitis B virus (HBV). The help it obtains from HBV is limited to the sharing of envelope proteins. These proteins are needed to facilitate the assembly of the HDV genome into new virus particles, and in turn, to allow the attachment and entry of HDV into new host cells. In other respects, the replication of the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV is independent of HBV. HDV genome replication produces two forms of a RNA-binding protein known as the long and small delta antigens (Ag). All other proteins needed for HDV genome replication, especially the RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, are provided by the host cell. This mini-review article is a mixture of personal perspective and speculations about the future of HDV research. It starts with a brief overview of HDV and its replication, notes some of the major unresolved questions, and directs the interested reader to more detailed reviews.

                Author and article information

                Iran J Med Sci
                Iran J Med Sci
                Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
                Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences (Iran )
                September 2015
                : 40
                : 5
                : 448-453
                [1 ]Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center (SHARC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ]Health Policy Research Center (HPRC), School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jamal Sarvari, PhD; Assistant Professor of Virology, Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 71348- 45794, Shiraz, Iran Mobile: +98 917 3877549 Tel/Fax: +98 71 32304356 Email: sarvarij@
                Copyright: © Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                hepatitis b virus, hepatitis delta virus, prevalence, hiv


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