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      Economic analysis of costs associated with a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Northern India

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          Abstract

          Background:

          There is a paucity of cost analytical studies from resource constrained developing countries defining intensive care costs and their containment.

          Objective:

          Economic analysis of costs in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India.

          Materials and Methods:

          A prospective study was conducted in 74 patients admitted in the RICU. Costs were segregated into fixed and variable costs. Total and categorized costs averaged per day and costs incurred on the first day of the RICU stay were calculated. Correlation of the costs was performed with the length of stay, length of mechanical ventilation, survival, and therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28).

          Results:

          The total cost per day was Indian rupees (INR) 10,364 (US $ 222). 46.4% of the total cost was borne by hospital and rest by patients. The mean cost represented 36.8% of the total cost and 69.8% of the variable cost. Expenditure on personnel salary constituted 37% of the total costs and 86% of the fixed cost. Length of stay in RICU was significantly higher in nonsurvivors (14.73 ± 13.6 days) vs. survivors (8.3 ± 7.8 days) ( P < 0.05). The TISS-28 score points in survivors was 30.6 vs. nonsurvivors 69.2 per nurse ( P < 0.05) correlating strongly with the total cost (r = 0.91).

          Conclusion:

          Although considerably less expensive than in economically developed countries, intensive care in India remains expensive relative to the cost of living. The cost block methodology provides a framework for cost estimation, aids resource allocation and allows international comparisons of economic models.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Daily cost of an intensive care unit day: the contribution of mechanical ventilation.

          To quantify the mean daily cost of intensive care, identify key factors associated with increased cost, and determine the incremental cost of mechanical ventilation during a day in the intensive care unit. Retrospective cohort analysis using data from NDCHealth's Hospital Patient Level Database. A total of 253 geographically diverse U.S. hospitals. The study included 51,009 patients >/=18 yrs of age admitted to an intensive care unit between October 1, 2002, and December 31, 2002. None. Days of intensive care and mechanical ventilation were identified using billing data, and daily costs were calculated as the sum of daily charges multiplied by hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Cost data are presented as mean (+/-sd). Incremental daily cost of mechanical ventilation was calculated using log-linear regression, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Approximately 36% of identified patients were mechanically ventilated at some point during their intensive care unit stay. Mechanically ventilated patients were older (63.5 yrs vs. 61.7 yrs, p < .0001) and more likely to be male (56.1% vs. 51.8%, p < 0.0001), compared with patients who were not mechanically ventilated, and required mechanical ventilation for a mean duration of 5.6 days +/- 9.6. Mean intensive care unit cost and length of stay were 31,574 +/- 42,570 dollars and 14.4 days +/- 15.8 for patients requiring mechanical ventilation and 12,931 +/- 20,569 dollars and 8.5 days +/- 10.5 for those not requiring mechanical ventilation. Daily costs were greatest on intensive care unit day 1 (mechanical ventilation, 10,794 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 6,667 dollars), decreased on day 2 (mechanical ventilation:, 4,796 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 3,496 dollars), and became stable after day 3 (mechanical ventilation, 3,968 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 3,184 dollars). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, the mean incremental cost of mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit patients was 1,522 dollars per day (p < .001). Intensive care unit costs are highest during the first 2 days of admission, stabilizing at a lower level thereafter. Mechanical ventilation is associated with significantly higher daily costs for patients receiving treatment in the intensive care unit throughout their entire intensive care unit stay. Interventions that result in reduced intensive care unit length of stay and/or duration of mechanical ventilation could lead to substantial reductions in total inpatient cost.
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            Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System: the TISS-28 items--results from a multicenter study.

            To validate a simplified version of the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, the TISS-28, and to determine the association of TISS-28 with the time spent on scored and nonscored nursing activities. Prospective, multicenter study. Twenty-two adult medical, surgical, and general Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 903 patients consecutively admitted to the ICUs. TISS-28 was constructed from a random sample of 10,000 records of TISS-76 items. The respective weights were calculated using multivariable regression analysis through the origin; TISS-76 scores were used as predicted values. Cross validation was performed in another random sample of 10,000 records and the scores of TISS-76 were compared with those scores obtained with TISS-28 (r = .96, r2 = .93). Nursing activities in the ICU were inventoried and divided into six categories: a) activities in TISS-28; b) patient care activities not in TISS-28; c) indirect patient care (activities related to but not in direct contact with the patient, such as contact with family, maintaining supplies); d) organizational activities (e.g., meetings, trainee supervision, research); e) personal activities (for the nurse him/herself, such as taking a break, going to the bathroom); f) other. During a 1-month period, TISS-76 and TISS-28 scores were determined daily from the patient's records by independent raters. During a 1-wk period, all of the nurses on duty scored their activities using a method called "work sampling." The analysis of validation included 1,820 valid pairs of TISS-76 and TISS-28 records. The mean value of TISS-28 (28.8 +/- 11.1) was higher (p 500 beds, 7.1% from hospitals with 300 to 500 beds, and 5.8% from hospitals with 60 points). In the successive groups of TISS scores, there was a significant increase in the proportion of time spent on the activities scored with TISS-28. In the lower TISS score group (0 to 20 points), there was a significantly larger proportion of time allocated to patient care activities not in TISS-28. There was no significant difference in the proportion of the time spent when associating indirect patient care and organizational activities with the level of TISS score. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of time spent on personal activities in the successive groups of TISS scores. The mean time spent per shift with personal activities varied between 1 hr and 40 mins (group 0 to 20 points TISS), and 1 hr and 16 mins (group > 60 points TISS). Significantly more time was used for patient care activities during the evening shift than during the day or the night shift. Conversely, nurses spent significantly less time on activities regarding their personal care during the evening shift. The time consumed for the activities of indirect patient care did not differ significantly among the three shifts. A typical nurse was capable of delivering work equal to 46.35 TISS-28 points per shift (one TISS-28 point equals 10.6 mins of each nurse's shift). The simplified TISS-28 explains 86% of the variation in TISS-76 and can therefore replace the original version in the clinical practice in the ICU. Per shift, a typical nurse is capable of delivering nursing activities equal to 46 TISS-28 points.
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              Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System: update 1983.

              The Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) introduced in 1974 has become a widely accepted method of classifying critically ill patients. In response to requests to update the system because of recent innovations in critical care, some items have been deleted, some have been added, and certain point scores have been adjusted. Explanations of items within the system and guidelines for the user are included. A comparison of the new 1983 system to the old 1974 system in 100 consecutive patients reveals no difference in total point scores. We hope this updated explanation will ease the task of assessing use of intensive care services.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Crit Care Med
                Indian J Crit Care Med
                IJCCM
                Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine : Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0972-5229
                1998-359X
                Mar-Apr 2013
                : 17
                : 2
                : 76-81
                Affiliations
                From: Department of Hospital Administration, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
                [2 ]Department of Hospital Administration, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr. Kumari Shweta, C-15, Delhi Government Residential Complex, D-2 Pocket, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi - 110 070, India. E-mail: drkumarishweta@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJCCM-17-76
                10.4103/0972-5229.114822
                3752871
                23983411
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

                intensive care, cost analysis, economic analysis

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