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      Ascaridiasis biliar en un paciente pediátrico. Reporte de caso

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          Abstract

          La ascaridiasis, es la parasitosis intestinal más frecuentes en humanos, con una alta prevalencia en países subdesarrollados. La migración a vesícula es poco frecuente en niños y cuando esto ocurre el tratamiento por lo general es endoscópico o quirúrgico. Caso clínico: paciente femenino de 13 años de edad, quien presentó dolor abdominal recurrente en cuadrante superior derecho. Los hallazgos de laboratorio revelaron elevación de enzimas hepáticas y leucocitosis. El ultrasonido abdominal (USA) evidenció imagen longitudinal y móvil en el interior de la vesícula, así como dilatación del colédoco. Se hospitaliza con el propósito de realizar colagiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) al siguiente día; la paciente expulsa espontáneamente áscaris por boca el mismo día, por lo que se difiriere la CPRE. Se practicó un segundo USA sin evidencia de áscaris. Se complementa tratamiento médico con albendazol vía oral. El ultrasonido abdominal es un método efectivo y poco costoso en la confirmación diagnóstica y monitorización de la ascaridiasis biliar. La ascaridiasis biliar no complicada debe tratarse de manera conservadora ya que la eliminación espontánea de Ascaris lumbricoides puede suceder hasta en 80 % de los casos.

          Translated abstract

          ascariasis is the most frequent intestinal parasitosis in humans, with a greater prevalence in undeveloped countries. Hepatobiliary migration of ascaris in children is uncommon, when it occurs; treatment is generally endoscopic or surgical. Clinical case: we present the case of a 13 year old female patient admitted to the emergency room with right upper quadrant persisting pain, of 1-month duration. Laboratory tests revealed elevation hepatic enzymes and WBC. Abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) showed a long, linear, moving echogenic structure in the distended lumen of the gallbladder, with an abnormal dilation of the choledochus. An Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was programmed for the following day. However, the patient spontaneously expelled a long ascaris orally the same day. Another AUS was performed with no evidence of ascaris in the gallbladder or the choledochus; thus the ERCP was differed. Medical treatment was complemented albendazole given orally. AUS is an effective and low cost method in the diagnostical confirmation and monitorization of biliary ascariasis, given the symptoms of pain, cholangitis and acute cholecystitis. Non complicated biliary ascariasis must be treated in a conservative manner given that spontaneous elimination can occur in up to 80% of the cases.

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          ASCARIASIS

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            Ascariasis.

            M S Khuroo (1996)
            Ascariasis is a helminthic infection of global distribution with more than 1.4 billion persons infected throughout the world. The majority of infections occur in the developing countries of Asia and Latin America. Of 4 million people infected in the United States, a large percentage are immigrants from developing countries. Ascaris-related clinical disease is restricted to subjects with heavy worm load, and an estimated 1.2 to 2 million such cases, with 20,000 deaths, occur in endemic areas per year. More often, recurring moderate infections cause stunting of linear growth, cause reduced cognitive function, and contribute to existing malnutrition in children in endemic areas. Ascaris infection is acquired by the ingestion of the embryonated eggs. The larvae, while passing through the pulmonary migration phase for maturation, cause ascaris pneumonia. Intestinal ascaris is usually detected as an incidental finding. Ascaris-induced intestinal obstruction is a frequent complication in children with heavy worm loads. It can be complicated by intussusception, perforation, and gangrene of the bowel. Acute appendicitis and appendicular perforation can occur as a result of worms entering the appendix. HPA is a frequent cause of biliary and pancreatic disease in endemic areas. It occurs in adult women and can cause biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, and hepatic abscess. RPC causing hepatic duct calculi is possibly an aftermath of recurrent biliary invasion in such areas. Ultrasonography can detect worms in the biliary tract and pancreas and is a useful noninvasive technique for diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. ERCP can help diagnose biliary and pancreatic ascariasis, including ascaris in the duodenum. Also, ERCP can be used to extract worms from the biliary and pancreatic ducts when indicated. Pyrantel pomoate, mebendazole, albendazole, and levamisole are effective drugs and can be used for mass therapy to control ascariasis in endemic areas.
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              Imaging of ascariasis.

              Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. During the intestinal phase of the disease, the adult worms usually remain clinically silent, sometimes causing a variety of non-specific abdominal symptoms. When present in large numbers, the worms may get intertwined into a bolus, causing intestinal obstruction, volvulus or even perforation. Occasionally, the adult Ascaris worm may migrate into the Vater's ampulla and enter the bile duct, gall bladder or pancreatic duct, leading to a variety of complications such as biliary colic, gallstone formation, cholecystitis, pyogenic cholangitis, liver abscess and pancreatitis. Imaging plays a significant role in showing the presence of worms and possible complications in intestinal as well as hepatobiliary ascariasis. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate various imaging features of ascariasis and its associated complications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                December 2009
                : 63
                : 4
                : 296-297
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital de Lidice Venezuela
                [2 ] Hospital de Lidice Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032009000400012
                cd40b450-5db8-412d-a078-9126d9df0399

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0016-3503&lng=en

                Ascaris lumbricoides,gallbladder,biliary colic,abdominal ultrasonography,small bowel series,vesícula,cólico biliar,ultrasonido abdominal,tránsito intestinal

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