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      The relationship between kidney function and quality of life among community-dwelling adults varies by age and filtration marker

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          Abstract

          Background

          The impact of a diminished level of kidney function on the well-being of an older individual is poorly understood. We sought to determine the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and overall quality of life (QoL) among older adults.

          Methods

          Cross-sectional analysis of 4293 participants from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a population-based study of community-dwelling adults ≥50 years of age. We used multivariable negative binomial regression to model the relationship between categories of cystatin C eGFR (eGFR cys) or creatinine eGFR (eGFR cr) and the number of QoL deficits from the Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure (CASP-19) scale, a holistic measure of QoL among older adults (range 0–57). We further explored this relationship across age strata.

          Results

          Median age was 61 [interquartile range (IQR) 55–68] years, 53% were female, mean (SD) CASP-19 score was 44.8 (7.4) and median eGFR cys was 81 (IQR 68–93) mL/min/1.73 m 2. After multivariable adjustment, participants with eGFR cys <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 had 14% greater QoL deficits {incidence rate ratio 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.25)] relative to the reference group (eGFR cys ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m 2). This relationship appeared linear across eGFR cys categories and was more pronounced in younger (50–64 years) compared with older participants (65–74 or ≥75 years). There was no substantive relationship between eGFR cr and CASP-19.

          Conclusions

          Cystatin C but not creatinine eGFR was associated with clinically modest declines in QoL among a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. This relationship varied by age, suggesting that a diminished eGFR contributes little to overall QoL beyond middle age in this population.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Influence of muscle mass and physical activity on serum and urinary creatinine and serum cystatin C.

          For addressing the influence of muscle mass on serum and urinary creatinine and serum cystatin C, body composition was assessed by skinfold thickness measurement and bioelectrical impedance analyses. A total of 170 healthy individuals (92 women, 78 men) were classified as sedentary or with mild or moderate/intense physical activity. Blood, 24-h urine samples, and 24-h food recall were obtained from all individuals. Serum and urinary creatinine correlated significantly with body weight, but the level of correlation with lean mass was even greater. There was no significant correlation between body weight and lean mass with cystatin C. Individuals with moderate/intense physical activity presented significantly lower mean body mass index (23.1 +/- 2.5 versus 25.7 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)) and higher lean mass (55.3 +/- 10.0 versus 48.5 +/- 10.4%), serum creatinine (1.04 +/- 0.12 versus 0.95 +/- 0.17 mg/dl), urinary creatinine (1437 +/- 471 versus 1231 +/- 430 mg/24 h), protein intake (1.4 +/- 0.6 versus 1.1 +/- 0.6 g/kg per d), and meat intake (0.7 +/- 0.3 versus 0.5 +/- 0.4 g/kg per d) than the sedentary individuals. Conversely, mean serum cystatin did not differ between these two groups. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that lean mass was significantly related to serum and urinary creatinine but not with cystatin, even after adjustment for protein/meat intake and physical activity. Cystatin C may represent a more adequate alternative to assess renal function in individuals with higher muscle mass when mild kidney impairment is suspected.
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            Quality of life in chronic kidney disease (CKD): a cross-sectional analysis in the Renal Research Institute-CKD study.

            Health-related quality of life (QOL) is an important measure of how disease affects patients' lives. Dialysis patients have decreased QOL relative to healthy controls. Little is known about QOL in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) before renal replacement therapy. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a standard QOL instrument, was used to evaluate 634 patients (mean glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 23.6 +/- 9.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 [0.39 +/- 0.16 mL/s/1.73 m2]) enrolled in a 4-center, prospective, observational study of CKD. SF-36 scores in these patients were compared with those in a prevalent cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients and healthy controls (both from historical data). QOL data also were analyzed for correlations with GFR and albumin and hemoglobin levels in multivariable analyses. Patients with CKD had higher SF-36 scores than a large cohort of HD patients (P < 0.0001 for 8 scales and 2 summary scales), but lower scores than those reported for the US adult population (P < 0.0001 for 7 of 8 scales and 1 of 2 summary scales). Patients with CKD stage 4 had lower QOL scores than patients with CKD stage 5, although differences were not significant. Hemoglobin level was associated positively with higher mental and physical QOL scores (P < 0.05) in all individual and component scales except Pain. SF-36 scores were higher in this CKD cohort compared with HD patients, but lower than in healthy controls. GFR was not significantly associated with QOL. Hemoglobin level predicted both physical and mental domains of the SF-36. Longitudinal studies are needed to define at-risk periods for decreases in QOL during progression of CKD.
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              Methods to explain the clinical significance of health status measures.

              One can classify ways to establish the interpretability of quality-of-life measures as anchor based or distribution based. Anchor-based measures require an independent standard or anchor that is itself interpretable and at least moderately correlated with the instrument being explored. One can further classify anchor-based approaches into population-focused and individual-focused measures. Population-focused approaches are analogous to construct validation and rely on multiple anchors that frame an individual's response in terms of the entire population (eg, a group of patients with a score of 40 has a mortality of 20%). Anchors for population-based approaches include status on a single item, diagnosis, symptoms, disease severity, and response to treatment. Individual-focused approaches are analogous to criterion validation. These methods, which rely on a single anchor and establish a minimum important difference in change in score, require 2 steps. The first step establishes the smallest change in score that patients consider, on average, to be important (the minimum important difference). The second step estimates the proportion of patients who have achieved that minimum important difference. Anchors for the individual-focused approach include global ratings of change within patients and global ratings of differences between patients. Distribution-based methods rely on expressing an effect in terms of the underlying distribution of results. Investigators may express effects in terms of between-person standard deviation units, within-person standard deviation units, and the standard error of measurement. No single approach to interpretability is perfect. Use of multiple strategies is likely to enhance the interpretability of any particular instrument.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Kidney J
                Clin Kidney J
                ckj
                Clinical Kidney Journal
                Oxford University Press
                2048-8505
                2048-8513
                April 2018
                04 August 2017
                04 August 2017
                : 11
                : 2
                : 259-264
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
                [2 ]Trinity Health Kidney Centre, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
                [3 ]Division of Population Health Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
                [4 ]Department of Renal Medicine, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
                Author notes
                Correspondence and offprint requests to: Mark Canney; E-mail: mcanney@ 123456tcd.ie
                Article
                sfx084
                10.1093/ckj/sfx084
                5888028
                © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Product
                Categories
                CKD

                Nephrology

                quality of life, age, epidemiology, cystatin c, creatinine, chronic kidney disease

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