Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas (agains native forests and grasslands) and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Argentina. Adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yield, but monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and marginal land cultivation have also increased. A better understanding of land suitability for agriculture and quantifying potential benefits of conservation and management production practices on various ecosystem services is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences. Several projects are underway to address specific issues at plot, farm and watershed scales. These projects are: Evaluation of water infiltration and storage capacity in soils under various cropping systems; Innovation platform for Sustainability of Cattle Raising Systems in Argentina and Uruguay; Mixed cropping/cattle systems as strategy to increase soil carbon sequestration and reduce climate change vulnerability; Decision Support tools for increasing and integrating Sustainable Land Management at Arroyo Estacas; and Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change.