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      Dispersal and local persistence shape the genetic structure of a widespread Neotropical plant species with a patchy distribution

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims

          Isolated populations constitute an ideal laboratory to study the consequences of intraspecific divergence, because intrinsic incompatibilities are more likely to accumulate under reduced gene flow. Here, we use a widespread bromeliad with a patchy distribution, Pitcairnia lanuginosa, as a model to infer processes driving Neotropical diversification and, thus, to improve our understanding of the origin and evolutionary dynamics of biodiversity in this highly speciose region.

          Methods

          We assessed the timing of lineage divergence, genetic structural patterns and historical demography of P. lanuginosa, based on microsatellites, and plastid and nuclear sequence data sets using coalescent analyses and an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework. Additionally, we used species distribution models (SDMs) to independently estimate potential changes in habitat suitability.

          Key Results

          Despite morphological uniformity, plastid and nuclear DNA data revealed two distinct P. lanuginosa lineages that probably diverged through dispersal from the Cerrado to the Central Andean Yungas, following the final uplift of the Andes, and passed through long-term isolation with no evidence of migration. Microsatellite data indicate low genetic diversity and high levels of inbreeding within populations, and restricted gene flow among populations, which are likely to be a consequence of bottlenecks (or founder events), and high selfing rates promoting population persistence in isolation. SDMs showed a slight expansion of the suitable range for P. lanuginosa lineages during the Last Glacial Maximum, although molecular data revealed a signature of older divergence. Pleistocene climatic oscillations thus seem to have played only a minor role in the diversification of P. lanuginosa, which probably persisted through adverse conditions in riparian forests.

          Conclusions

          Our results imply drift as a major force shaping the evolution of P. lanuginosa, and suggest that dispersal events have a prominent role in connecting Neotropical open and forest biomes.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Marker-assisted selection: an approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty-first century.

          DNA markers have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional plant breeding via marker-assisted selection (MAS). The large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping studies for diverse crops species have provided an abundance of DNA marker-trait associations. In this review, we present an overview of the advantages of MAS and its most widely used applications in plant breeding, providing examples from cereal crops. We also consider reasons why MAS has had only a small impact on plant breeding so far and suggest ways in which the potential of MAS can be realized. Finally, we discuss reasons why the greater adoption of MAS in the future is inevitable, although the extent of its use will depend on available resources, especially for orphan crops, and may be delayed in less-developed countries. Achieving a substantial impact on crop improvement by MAS represents the great challenge for agricultural scientists in the next few decades.
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            Present-day South American climate

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              abc: an R package for approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annals of Botany
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0305-7364
                1095-8290
                August 16 2019
                October 18 2019
                June 19 2019
                August 16 2019
                October 18 2019
                June 19 2019
                : 124
                : 3
                : 499-512
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Departamento de Ecología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru
                [3 ]Biogeco, INRA, Université de Bordeaux, Cestas, France
                [4 ]Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
                Article
                10.1093/aob/mcz105
                6798837
                31219156
                © 2019

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