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      Development of CT-based methods for longitudinal analyses of paranasal sinus osteitis in granulomatosis with polyangiitis

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          Even though progressive rhinosinusitis with osteitis is a major clinical problem in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), there are no studies on how GPA-related osteitis develops over time, and no quantitative methods for longitudinal assessment.

          Here, we aimed to identify simple and robust CT-based methods for capture and quantification of time-dependent changes in GPA-related paranasal sinus osteitis and compare performance of the methods under study in a largely unselected GPA cohort.


          GPA patients (n = 121) with ≥3 paranasal CT scans obtained ≥12 months apart and control patients not having GPA or rhinosinusitis (n = 15) were analysed by: (i) Global osteitis scoring scale (GOSS), originally developed for chronic rhinosinusitis; (ii) Paranasal sinus volume by manual segmentation; (iii) Mean maxillary and sphenoid diameter normalised to landmark distances (i.e. diameter ratio measurement, DRM).


          Time-dependent changes in GPA-related osteitis were equally well measured by the simple DRM and the labour-intensive volume method while GOSS missed ongoing changes in cases with extensive osteitis. GOSS at last CT combined with DRM identified three distinct patient groups: (i) The no osteitis group, who had no osteitis and no change in DRM from baseline CT to last CT (45/121 GPA patients and 15/15 disease controls); (ii) Stable osteitis group, with presence of osteitis, but no change in DRM across time (31 GPA); (iii) Progressive osteitis, defined by declining DRM (45 GPA).


          We suggest DRM and GOSS as complementary methods for capturing, classifying and quantifying time-dependent changes in GPA-related osteitis.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12880-019-0315-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Wegener granulomatosis: an analysis of 158 patients.

           Gary Hoffman (1992)
          To prospectively study the clinical features, pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of Wegener granulomatosis. Of the 180 patients with Wegener granulomatosis referred to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases during the past 24 years, 158 have been followed for 6 months to 24 years (a total of 1229 patient-years). Characteristics of clinical presentation, surgical pathology, course of illness, laboratory and radiographic findings, and the results of medical and surgical treatment have been recorded in a computer-based information retrieval system. The Warren Magnuson Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Men and women were equally represented; 97% of patients were white, and 85% were more than 19 years of age. The mean period of follow-up was 8 years. One hundred and thirty-three patients (84%) received "standard" therapy with daily low-dose cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. Eight (5.0%) received only low-dose cyclophosphamide. Six (4.0%) never received cyclophosphamide and were treated with other cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids. Ten patients (6.0%) were treated with only glucocorticoids. Ninety-one percent of patients experienced marked improvement, and 75% achieved complete remission. Fifty percent of remissions were associated with one or more relapses. Of 99 patients followed for greater than 5 years, 44% had remissions of greater than 5 years duration. Thirteen percent of patients died of Wegener granulomatosis, treatment-related causes, or both. Almost all patients had serious morbidity from irreversible features of their disease (86%) or side effects of treatment (42%). The course of Wegener granulomatosis has been dramatically improved by daily treatment with cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. Nonetheless, disease- and treatment-related morbidity is often profound. Alternative forms of therapy have not yet achieved the high rates of remission induction and successful maintenance that have been reported with daily cyclophosphamide treatment. Despite continued therapeutic success with cyclophosphamide, our long-term follow-up of patients with Wegener granulomatosis has led to increasing concerns about toxicity resulting from prolonged cyclophosphamide therapy and has encouraged investigation of other therapeutic regimens.
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            Staging in rhinosinusitus.

             I MacKay,  V Lund (1993)
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              The contrasting epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis.

              Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) are uncommon and have unknown aetiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of GPA and MPA in a stable, well-defined population looking for differences in the pattern of occurrence, which might suggest a different aetiology. Since 1988, we have maintained a prospective register of all patients with systemic vasculitis attending the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital. Patients presenting with new-onset GPA and MPA as defined by the European Medicines Agency algorithm and registered with general practitioners in the former Norwich Health Authority area between 1988 and 2010 were identified. The population in 2008 was estimated to be 459 000 (221 000 males). One hundred and eleven GPA and 58 MPA incident cases were identified during 1988-2010. The overall annual incidence of GPA and MPA was 11.3/million and 5.9/million, respectively. There was evidence of a cyclical pattern of occurrence with a periodicity of 7.6 years for GPA with a peak incidence of 28.3/million in 2005 and the lowest in 2002 (2.2/million). Other lesser peaks occurred in 1990 and 1996. While the peak incidence of MPA was in 2008 (15.2/million), there was no convincing evidence of periodicity. The incidence of cANCA/PR3- or pANCA/MPO-positive vasculitis showed a similar pattern to GPA and MPA, respectively. This study lends support to the notion that the aetiology of GPA and MPA may be distinct conditions with different aetiologies. The cyclical incidence of GPA is possibly an indication for the influence of infection.

                Author and article information

                BMC Med Imaging
                BMC Med Imaging
                BMC Medical Imaging
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 February 2019
                4 February 2019
                : 19
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, ; PB 4950 Nydalen, Oslo, 0424 Norway
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8921, GRID grid.5510.1, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, ; PB 1072 Blindern, Oslo, 0316 Norway
                [3 ]Department of Rheumatology, Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, PB 4950 Nydalen, Oslo, 0424 Norway
                [4 ]Department of Rheumatology, Martina Hansen Hospital, Dønskiveien 8, Gjettum, 1346 Norway
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100009471, EkstraStiftelsen Helse og Rehabilitering;
                Award ID: 2015FO76400
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019


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