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      Molecular detection of vector-borne agents in dogs from ten provinces of China

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          Although many vector-borne agents are potential zoonoses and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in dogs worldwide, there are limited data on these organisms in dogs of China.


          Quantitative PCRs for vector-borne agents were performed to investigate their prevalences in convenience whole blood samples obtained from 1114 dogs from 21 veterinary clinics and a commercial dog breeding facility in ten provinces of China. In addition, the PCRs were performed on 146 Rhipicephalus sanguineus senso lato and 37 Linognathus setosus collected from dogs in the commercial dog breeding facility.


          DNAs of Babesia gibsoni and B. vogeli (1.2 %), Ehrlichia canis (1.3 %), Hepatozoon canis (1.8 %) and Theileria orientalis (0.1 %) or a closely related organism were detected in the bloods of the dogs studied, and Babesia vogeli (3.4 %) and Ehrlichia canis (4.1 %) in R. sanguineus senso lato. The qPCRs for Anaplasma spp., Dirofilaria immitis and Leishmania spp. were negative for all blood samples, ticks and lice. At least one vector-borne agent was found in dogs from 5 of the 10 provinces investigated in this study. Overall, 4.4 % (49/1117) of the dogs studied were positive for at least one vector-borne agent with the prevalence being highest in the commercial breeding colony (24/97; 24.7 %).


          Our study confirms that B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis occur in China. Also, we present evidence that T. orientalis or a closely related organism can infect dogs.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats.

           Susan Little (2010)
          In the time since canine ehrlichiosis due to Ehrlichia canis was first described in 1935 and first recognized in the United States in 1962, many key advances have been made in our understanding of the diversity of the rickettsial organisms responsible for ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and, occasionally, cats, the vectors capable of transmitting these agents, and the role these organisms play as both important veterinary pathogens and zoonotic disease agents. Despite considerable progress in the field, much remains to be learned regarding mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis, effective treatment modalities, and prevention strategies that best protect pet health. This article highlights current understanding of the transmission, diagnosis, and management of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Perspectives on canine and feline hepatozoonosis.

             Gad Baneth (2011)
            Two species of Hepatozoon are currently known to infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. Hepatozoon canis prevalent in Africa, Asia, southern Europe, South America and recently shown to be present also in the USA causes infection mainly of hemolymphoid organs, whereas Hepatozoon americanum prevalent in the southeastern USA causes myositis and severe lameness. H. americanum is transmitted by ingestion of the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum and also by predation on infected prey. H. canis is transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in South America also by Amblyomma ovale, and has also been shown to be transmitted transplacentally. Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been described mostly from the same areas where canine infection is present and the exact identity of the species which infect cats, their pathogenicity and vectors have not been elucidated. The diagnosis of hepatozoonosis is made by observation of gamonts in blood smears, histopathology, PCR or serology. The main treatment for H. canis is with imidocarb dipropionate whereas H. americanum infection is treated with an initial combination of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and clindamycin followed by maintenance with decoquinate. Treatment for both diseases has not been reported to facilitate complete parasite elimination and new effective drugs are needed for the management of these infections. Prevention of hepatozoonosis should be based on avoidance of oral ingestion of infected tick vectors and infected prey. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).

              Two strains of Rhipicephalus sanguineus acquired Ehrlichia canis by feeding as either larvae or nymphs on acutely infected dogs and, in subsequent instars, transmitted the agent to normal dogs. Three strains of R sanguineus transmitted E canis as adults after their larval and nymphal stages fed on infected dogs. More than 400 adult female ticks were fed on infected dogs as larvae or nymphs or both, but none transmitted E canis transovarially.

                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1 October 2015
                1 October 2015
                : 8
                [ ]Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009 P. R. China
                [ ]China Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine, Beijing, 100083 China
                [ ]Yunnan Agricultural University College of Animal Science & Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650201 China
                [ ]Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College, Taizhou, Jiangsu China
                [ ]Xinjiang Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830052 China
                [ ]Inner Mongolia Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018 China
                [ ]Henan Agricultural University College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan 45002 China
                [ ]Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522 Egypt
                [ ]Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, St. Kitts & Nevis, West Indies
                © Xu et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                fret-pcr, vector-borne agents, china, dogs


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