Although anaerobic bioengineering treatment of chicken manure has the advantages of low energy consumption, less pollution, and recyclable biomass energy, antibiotics are usually added in the process of modern intensive farming. And antibiotics still exist in feces and pose a threat to human health. Therefore, this study aimed to deeply understand the role of TC in the anaerobic digestion of chicken manure and to analyze the effect of tetracycline antibiotics on the anaerobic digestion of chicken manure based on data mining. In this study, chicken manure was used as raw material for anaerobic fermentation, and the effects of tetracycline (TC) on anaerobic and anaerobic fermentation of chicken manure were compared through batch and sequence experiments. Also, this study analyzes the fermentative transformation to elucidate the effect of TC on anaerobic manure conversion in chicken manure, which further studies the effect of TC on the anaerobic fermentation of chicken manure. The experimental results in this study show that when the TC concentration is 50–150 mg/L, the content of tryptophan and tyrosine proteins in the treatment group is also higher than that in the control group. It shows that at low concentrations (10, 25 mg/L), TC mainly promotes the degradation of LEPS by promoting the dissolution of intracellular substances in the sludge. With the increase of TC concentration (50–300 mg/L), TC mainly promotes the breakdown of the sludge cell membrane by promoting the rupture of the sludge cell membrane, thereby promoting the degradation of LEPS.