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      Inhaled tyrosine kinase inhibitors for pulmonary hypertension: a possible future treatment

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          Abstract

          Pulmonary hypertension is a disease with severe consequences for the human body. There are several diseases and situations that induce pulmonary hypertension and are usually underdiagnosed. Treatments include conventional medical therapies and oral, inhaled, intravenous, and subcutaneous options. Depending on its severity, heart or lung transplant may also be an option. A possible novel treatment could be tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We conducted experiments with three jet nebulizers and three ultrasound nebulizers with erlotinib, gefitinib, and imatinib. Different residual cup designs and residual cup loadings were used in order to identify the best combination to produce droplets of less than 5 μm in mass median aerodynamic diameter. We found that gefitinib could not be transformed into a powder, so conversion to an aerosol form was not possible. Our experiments indicated that imatinib is superior to erlotinib with regard to small droplet size formation using both inhaled technologies (1.37 μm <2.23 μm and 1.92 μm <3.11 μm, jet and ultrasound, respectively) and, at jet devices (1.37 μm <1.92 μm). Cup designs C and G contribute best to small droplet creation uniquely supporting and equally well the activity of both drugs. The disadvantage of the large droplets formed for erlotinib was offset when combined with residual cup C (1.37 μm instead of 2.23 μm). At a 2 mL dose, the facemask and cone mouthpieces performed best and evenly; the facemask and low dose were the best choice (2.08 μm and 2.12 μm, respectively). Erlotinib and imatinib can be administered as an aerosols, and further in vivo experimentation is necessary to investigate the positive effects of these drugs in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

          The diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rapidly evolving area, with changes occurring in the definition of the disease, screening and diagnostic techniques, and staging and follow-up assessment. The definition of pulmonary hypertension has been simplified, and is now based on currently available evidence. There has been substantial progress in advancing the imaging techniques and biomarkers used to screen patients for the disease and to follow up their response to therapy. The importance of accurate assessment of right ventricular function in following up the clinical course and response to therapy is more fully appreciated. As new therapies are developed for pulmonary arterial hypertension, screening, prompt diagnosis, and accurate assessment of disease severity become increasingly important. A clear definition of pulmonary hypertension and the development of a rational approach to diagnostic assessment and follow-up using both conventional and new tools will be essential to deriving maximal benefit from our expanding therapeutic armamentarium.
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            Long-term response to calcium channel blockers in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

            Characteristics of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) who benefit from long-term calcium channel blockers (CCB) are unknown. Acute pulmonary vasodilator testing with epoprostenol or nitric oxide was performed in 557 IPAH patients. Acute responders, defined by a fall in both mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) >20%, received long-term oral CCB. Patients who benefit from long-term CCB were defined as those being in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I or II after at least 1 year on CCB monotherapy. Among the 70 patients who displayed acute pulmonary vasoreactivity (12.6%; 95% CI, 9.8% to 15.3%) and received CCB therapy, only 38 showed long-term improvement (6.8%; 95% CI, 4.7% to 8.9%). Long-term CCB responders had less severe disease at baseline than patients who failed. During acute vasodilator testing, long-term CCB responders displayed a more pronounced fall in mean PAP (-39+/-11% versus -26+/-7%; P<0.0001), reaching an absolute value of mean PAP lower than that measured in patients who failed (33+/-8 versus 46+/-10 mm Hg; P<0.0001). After 7.0+/-4.1 years, all but 1 long-term CCB responders were alive in NYHA class I or II, with a sustained hemodynamic improvement. In the group of patients who failed on CCB, the 5-year survival rate was 48%. Long-term CCB responders represent <10% of IPAH patients evaluated in a pulmonary vascular referral center. During acute vasodilator testing, these patients showed significantly lower levels of both mean PAP and PVR, which reached near-normal values.
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              Diagnosis and differential assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

              Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is diagnosed by various investigations that are essential for making the diagnosis, and by additional tests to clarify the category of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A diagnostic algorithm can guide the evaluation of PH, but like all guidelines the algorithm can be modified according to specific clinical circumstances. Most patients are diagnosed as the result of an evaluation of symptoms, whereas others are diagnosed during screening of asymptomatic populations at risk. Right heart catheterization (RHC) must be performed in patients with suspected PH to establish the diagnosis and document pulmonary hemodynamics. Before initiation of medical therapy, assessment of acute vasoreactivity (during catheterization) is necessary to determine the appropriate therapy for an individual patient. An acute response is generally defined as a decrease in mean pulmonary arterial pressure of at least 10 mm Hg with the mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreasing to 40 mm Hg or below, accompanied by a normal or high cardiac output. After PAH is diagnosed, disease severity should be assessed in order to accurately determine risk:benefit profiles for various therapeutic options. Useful tools to predict outcome include functional class, exercise capacity, pulmonary hemodynamics, acute vasoreactivity, right ventricular function, as well as brain natriuretic peptide, endothelin-1, uric acid, and troponin levels. Repeating these tests serially on treatment is useful for monitoring the response to a given therapy. Close follow-up at a center specializing in management of PH is recommended, with careful periodic reassessment and adjustment of therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                07 October 2014
                : 8
                : 1753-1763
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [2 ]Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [3 ]Internal Medicine Department, Thegenio Anticancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [4 ]II Medical Department, Coburg Regional Hospital, Coburg, Germany
                [5 ]Oncology Department, Sotiria Hospital of Chest Diseases, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                [6 ]Oncology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
                [7 ]Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [8 ]Division of Interventional Pulmonology and Medical Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Western Regional Medical Center, Goodyear, AZ, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Paul Zarogoulidis, Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Tel +30 69 7727 1974, Fax +30 23 1099 2432, Email pzarog@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                dddt-8-1753
                10.2147/DDDT.S70277
                4199972
                © 2014 Pitsiou et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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