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      Description of a new species of Homonota (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the central region of northern Paraguay

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Homonota is a gecko distributed in central and southern South America with 12 species allocated in three groups. In this work, we performed molecular and morphological analyses of samples of Homonota from the central region of northern Paraguay, comparing the data with those of related species of the group: H. horrida and H. septentrionalis. We found strong molecular evidence (based on 16S, Cyt-b, and PRLR gene sequences) to distinguish this lineage as a new species. Morphological statistical analysis showed that females of the three species are different in metric characters (SVL and TL as the most contributing variables), whereas males are less differentiated. No robust differences were found in meristic characters. The most remarkable trait for the diagnosis of the new species is the presence of well-developed keeled tubercles on the sides of the neck, and lack of a white band (crescent-shaped) in the occipital area, which is present in H. horrida and H. septentrionalis. Nevertheless, in our sample, we found three specimens (one juvenile and two young adults) that exhibit the white occipital band. Thus, this character seems only reliable in adults of the new species. The new species is parapatric to H. septentrionalis, both inhabiting the Dry Chaco of Paraguay.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Inference from Iterative Simulation Using Multiple Sequences

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            Improved accuracy of multiple ncRNA alignment by incorporating structural information into a MAFFT-based framework

            Background Structural alignment of RNAs is becoming important, since the discovery of functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Recent studies, mainly based on various approximations of the Sankoff algorithm, have resulted in considerable improvement in the accuracy of pairwise structural alignment. In contrast, for the cases with more than two sequences, the practical merit of structural alignment remains unclear as compared to traditional sequence-based methods, although the importance of multiple structural alignment is widely recognized. Results We took a different approach from a straightforward extension of the Sankoff algorithm to the multiple alignments from the viewpoints of accuracy and time complexity. As a new option of the MAFFT alignment program, we developed a multiple RNA alignment framework, X-INS-i, which builds a multiple alignment with an iterative method incorporating structural information through two components: (1) pairwise structural alignments by an external pairwise alignment method such as SCARNA or LaRA and (2) a new objective function, Four-way Consistency, derived from the base-pairing probability of every sub-aligned group at every multiple alignment stage. Conclusion The BRAliBASE benchmark showed that X-INS-i outperforms other methods currently available in the sum-of-pairs score (SPS) criterion. As a basis for predicting common secondary structure, the accuracy of the present method is comparable to or rather higher than those of the current leading methods such as RNA Sampler. The X-INS-i framework can be used for building a multiple RNA alignment from any combination of algorithms for pairwise RNA alignment and base-pairing probability. The source code is available at the webpage found in the Availability and requirements section.
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              Phylogeographic breaks without geographic barriers to gene flow.

              The spatial distribution of genetic markers can be useful both in estimating patterns of gene flow and in reconstructing biogeographic history, particularly when gene genealogies can be estimated. Genealogies based on nonrecombining genetic units such as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA often consist of geographically separated clades that come into contact in narrow regions. Such phylogeographic breaks are usually assumed to be the result of long-term barriers to gene flow. Here I show that deep phylogeographic breaks can form within a continuously distributed species even when there are no barriers to gene flow. The likelihood of observing phylogeographic breaks increases as the average individual dispersal distance and population size decrease. Those molecular markers that are most likely to show evidence of real geographic barriers are also most likely to show phylogeographic breaks that formed without any barrier to gene flow. These results might provide an explanation as to why some species, such as the greenish warblers (Phylloscopus trochiloides), have phylogeographic breaks in mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA that do not coincide with sudden changes in other traits.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                February 28 2018
                February 28 2018
                : 94
                : 1
                : 147-161
                Article
                10.3897/zse.94.21754
                © 2018

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