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      Assessing strategies to minimize unintended fitness consequences of aquaculture on wild populations

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          Abstract

          Artificial propagation programs focused on production, such as commercial aquaculture or forestry, entail strong domestication selection. Spillover from such programs can cause unintended fitness and demographic consequences for wild conspecifics. The range of possible management practices to minimize such consequences vary in their control of genetic and demographic processes. Here, we use a model of coupled genetic and demographic dynamics to evaluate alternative management approaches to minimizing unintended consequences of aquaculture escapees. We find that, if strong natural selection occurs between escape and reproduction, an extremely maladapted (i.e., nonlocal-origin, highly domesticated) stock could have fitness consequences analogous to a weakly diverged cultured stock; otherwise, wild population fitness declines with increasing maladaptation in the cultured stock. Reducing escapees through low-level leakage is more effective than reducing an analogous number of escapees from large, rare pulses. This result arises because low-level leakage leads to the continual lowering of wild population fitness and subsequent increased proportional contribution of maladapted cultured escapees to the total population. Increased sterilization efficacy can cause rapid, nonlinear reductions in unintended fitness consequences. Finally, sensitivity to the stage of escape indicates a need for improved monitoring data on how the number of escapees varies across life cycle stages.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Gene flow and the limits to natural selection

           T Lenormand (2002)
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            Genetic effects of captive breeding cause a rapid, cumulative fitness decline in the wild.

            Captive breeding is used to supplement populations of many species that are declining in the wild. The suitability of and long-term species survival from such programs remain largely untested, however. We measured lifetime reproductive success of the first two generations of steelhead trout that were reared in captivity and bred in the wild after they were released. By reconstructing a three-generation pedigree with microsatellite markers, we show that genetic effects of domestication reduce subsequent reproductive capabilities by approximately 40% per captive-reared generation when fish are moved to natural environments. These results suggest that even a few generations of domestication may have negative effects on natural reproduction in the wild and that the repeated use of captive-reared parents to supplement wild populations should be carefully reconsidered.
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              Genetic Effects of Cultured Fish on Natural Fish Populations

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evol Appl
                Evol Appl
                eva
                Evolutionary Applications
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd
                1752-4571
                1752-4571
                November 2013
                09 October 2013
                : 6
                : 7
                : 1090-1108
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis Davis, CA, USA
                [2 ]Center for Population Biology, University of California Davis Davis, CA, USA
                [3 ]Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, WA, USA
                Author notes
                Marissa L. Baskett, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-5270, USA. Tel.: (530)752 1579; fax: (530)752 3350; e-mail: mlbaskett@ 123456ucdavis.edu
                Article
                10.1111/eva.12089
                3804241
                Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.

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