Objective To understand the current status of the team structure of health personnel in primary and secondary schools, and to provide suggestions and references for strengthening and optimizing school health workforce.
Methods A nationwide stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to select provinces for investigation in stratification from 2015—2016, a total of 16 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, 26 survey sites, 10 027 primary and secondary schools, 9 536 questionnaires of health personnel were collected.
Results Among the 9 536 school health staffs, there were various types of positions, and different types of schools had different position types construction. Elementary schools had the most part-time health care teachers, accounting for 77.6%, while full-time school doctors only accounting 10.0%; high schools had the most full-time school doctors, accounting for 65.7%, and part-time health care teachers only accounting for 15.1%. There were various employment channels, with the most transfer jobs in schools, accounting for 70.7%. The series of professional titles were diverse, with the teaching profession accounting for 67.4%. Most of school health teachers had junior and intermediate professional titles, accounting for 42.6%, respectively. Proportion of medium, medium-low, and low level of salary accounted for 39.3%, 27.9% and 21.1% respectively.
Conclusion The educational background and age distribution of school health personnel is reasonable, but the proportions of medical background and full-time school doctors are relatively low. School health personnel have various job types, professional titles, salary level, and limited space of career development. Top-level design from the policy level, and clearly defined improve the structure of school health personnel to meet the needs of high-quality development of school health work in the new era.
【摘要】 目的 了解中小学校卫生人员的队伍结构现况, 为加强学校卫生人员队伍建设、优化队伍结构提供建议和参考。 方法 于 2015—2016 年采取分层随机整群抽样方法, 选取覆盖中国 16 个省/自治区/直辖市的 26 个调研点, 10 027 所中 小学校, 共对 9 536 名学校卫生工作人员进行问卷调査。 结果 9 536 位学校卫生工作人员中, 岗位类型多样, 小学兼职保 健教师最多, 占 77.6%, 专职校医只占 10.0%; 髙中专职校医最多, 占 70.7%, 兼职保健教师只占 15.1%。上岗途径中学校内 调剂上岗者最多, 占 65.0%。职称系列中教师系列最多, 占 67.4%。职称级别以初级和中级为主, 各占 42.6%。工资档次主 要为中档、中低档和低档, 分别占 39.3%, 27.9% 和 21.1%。 结论 学校卫生人员的学历和年龄结构较合理, 但医学背景和 专职校医比例较低, 职称系列多样, 职称和工资待遇相对较低, 职业发展空间受限。需要从政策层面做好顶层设计, 明确定 位改善学校卫生工作人员队伍结构, 满足新时期学校卫生工作髙质量发展需求。