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      Designing a Thalamic Somatosensory Neural Prosthesis: Consistency and Persistence of Percepts Evoked by Electrical Stimulation

      IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering

      Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

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          Brain-controlled interfaces: movement restoration with neural prosthetics.

          Brain-controlled interfaces are devices that capture brain transmissions involved in a subject's intention to act, with the potential to restore communication and movement to those who are immobilized. Current devices record electrical activity from the scalp, on the surface of the brain, and within the cerebral cortex. These signals are being translated to command signals driving prosthetic limbs and computer displays. Somatosensory feedback is being added to this control as generated behaviors become more complex. New technology to engineer the tissue-electrode interface, electrode design, and extraction algorithms to transform the recorded signal to movement will help translate exciting laboratory demonstrations to patient practice in the near future.
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            Direct neural sensory feedback and control of a prosthetic arm.

            Evidence indicates that user acceptance of modern artificial limbs by amputees would be significantly enhanced by a system that provides appropriate, graded, distally referred sensations of touch and joint movement, and that the functionality of limb prostheses would be improved by a more natural control mechanism. We have recently demonstrated that it is possible to implant electrodes within individual fascicles of peripheral nerve stumps in amputees, that stimulation through these electrodes can produce graded, discrete sensations of touch or movement referred to the amputee's phantom hand, and that recordings of motor neuron activity associated with attempted movements of the phantom limb through these electrodes can be used as graded control signals. We report here that this approach allows amputees to both judge and set grip force and joint position in an artificial arm, in the absence of visual input, thus providing a substrate for better integration of the artificial limb into the amputee's body image. We believe this to be the first demonstration of direct neural feedback from and direct neural control of an artificial arm in amputees.
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              Motor control by sensory cortex.

              Classical studies of mammalian movement control define a prominent role for the primary motor cortex. Investigating the mouse whisker system, we found an additional and equally direct pathway for cortical motor control driven by the primary somatosensory cortex. Whereas activity in primary motor cortex directly evokes exploratory whisker protraction, primary somatosensory cortex directly drives whisker retraction, providing a rapid negative feedback signal for sensorimotor integration. Motor control by sensory cortex suggests the need to reevaluate the functional organization of cortical maps.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1109/TNSRE.2011.2152858
                21622082

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