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      Succession Influences Wild Bees in a Temperate Forest Landscape: The Value of Early Successional Stages in Naturally Regenerated and Planted Forests

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          Abstract

          In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional habitats, leading to significant positive effects for bees in general.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Role: Editor
          Journal
          PLoS One
          PLoS ONE
          plos
          plosone
          PLoS ONE
          Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
          1932-6203
          2013
          15 February 2013
          : 8
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Forest Entomology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
          [2 ]Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
          [3 ]Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
          [4 ]Kyushu Research Centre, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan
          [5 ]Nasushiobara, Tochigi, Japan
          University of Northampton, United Kingdom
          Author notes

          Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

          Conceived and designed the experiments: HT IO KO TI SM. Performed the experiments: HT KO TI HG TM SM. Analyzed the data: HT SM. Wrote the paper: HT SM.

          Article
          PONE-D-12-20930
          10.1371/journal.pone.0056678
          3574003
          23457602
          cd9040ab-b095-4dce-9b07-71b5722bab47

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

          Page count
          Pages: 8
          Funding
          This study was funded as a project of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature and was also supported in part by the Global Environment Research Fund (S-9) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
          Categories
          Research Article
          Agriculture
          Agricultural Production
          Environmental Impacts
          Agroecology
          Ecosystems Agroecology
          Crops
          Crop Management
          Forestry
          Biology
          Ecology
          Agroecology
          Ecosystems Agroecology
          Community Ecology
          Community Structure
          Ecological Remediation
          Ecological Environments
          Terrestrial Environments
          Ecological Metrics
          Species Diversity
          Ecosystems
          Artificial Ecosystems
          Biodiversity
          Conservation Science
          Plant Ecology
          Restoration Ecology
          Spatial and Landscape Ecology
          Terrestrial Ecology
          Plant Science
          Botany
          Palynology
          Pollen
          Plants
          Pollen
          Plant Ecology
          Zoology
          Entomology
          Earth Sciences
          Environmental Sciences
          Environmental Engineering
          Engineering
          Environmental Engineering

          Uncategorized

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