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      Tamoxifen but Not Other Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Antagonizes Estrogen Actions on Luteinizing Hormone Secretion while Inducing Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Self-Priming in the Rat

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          Abstract

          Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are compounds which may function as agonists or antagonists depending upon the target tissue. This study compares the actions of different SERMs on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, and on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) self-priming in the rat. To do this, 4-day cyclic rats were injected twice, on day 2 (metestrus) and day 3 of the estrous cycle, with one of the following SERMs: 0.25 mg ICI 182,780, 3 mg tamoxifen (TX), LY139481-HCl or LY117018-HCl, or 0.5 mg RU58668. Control rats were given subcutaneous injections of 0.2 ml oil. On the morning of day 4 (proestrus in controls), rats from each group were either injected intraperitoneally with pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) for in vivo study or decapitated and their pituitaries collected for incubation (in vitro study). Additionally, pituitaries taken on each day of the estrous cycle from control rats as well as on day 4 from SERM-treated rats were processed for immunohistochemical determination of the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) gonadotrope. The plasma concentration or accumulation of LH in the medium was determined after 1 h (basal secretion). Thereafter, an intravenous bolus of GnRH (50 ng/0.5 ml/100 g BW) or 10<sup>–8</sup> M GnRH was injected or added to the medium, respectively. After 1 h of GnRH exposure, blood or medium were taken, and another challenge of GnRH was made. At the end of the 3rd h of the experiment, blood or medium samples were taken again and the LH plasma concentration or accumulation in the medium were determined. All SERM treatments reduced uterus weight and decreased basal and stimulated LH secretion. Also, on day 4, rats treated with any SERM other than TX showed vaginal smears infiltrated by leukocytes and a reduction in GnRH self-priming. TX-treated rats exhibited cornified vaginal smears and an estrogenic effect on GnRH self-priming. Moreover, 15-min exposure to two consecutive GnRH (10<sup>–8</sup> M) challenges 1 h apart in incubated pituitaries with estradiol (E<sub>2</sub>, 10<sup>–8</sup> M), TX (10<sup>–7</sup> M), E<sub>2</sub> + TX, or medium alone form ovariectomized rats injected for 3 days with estradiol benzoate (25 µg), TX (3 mg), estradiol benzoate + TX, or 0.2 ml oil, respectively, showed that TX increased GnRH self-priming, as did E<sub>2</sub>, whereas it reduced the E<sub>2</sub>-sensitizing effect on GnRH-stimulated LH secretion and cancelled the E<sub>2</sub>-dependent GnRH self-priming. All SERMs prevented the physiological nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of ERα exhibited during proestrus in control rats, and TX, in addition, induced a significantly larger number of gonadotropes displaying strong cytosolic immunosignals corresponding to ERα than the rest of the experimental groups. Overall, data from this study indicated that, in contrast to the general antagonistic effect of the tested SERMs, TX seemed to display both selective agonist and antagonist activity at the gonadotrope level and on GnRH self-priming of LH secretion respectively.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary.

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            ICI 182,780 (Faslodex?)

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              Uterine bioassay of tamoxifen, trioxifene and a new estrogen antagonist (LY117018) in rats and mice.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2002
                October 2002
                31 October 2002
                : 76
                : 4
                : 203-213
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, University of Córdoba, and bPhysiology and cSection of Cell Biology, University of La Laguna, Spain
                Article
                65952 Neuroendocrinology 2002;76:203–213
                10.1159/000065952
                12411737
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 57, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Central Effects of Estrogens and Reproductive Neuroendocrinology

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