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      Repeated Restraint Stress Reduces the Number of IgA-Producing Cells in Peyer’s Patches

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          The few reports that have analyzed the effects of stress on the immune cells of the intestinal mucosa or the functions of these cells have tended to focus on S-IgA levels in saliva, and these studies have shown contradictory results. The principal objective of this study was to analyze the effects of repeated restraint stress on the number and distribution of immune cells in Peyer’s patches (PPs) as well as the effects of glucocorticoid and catecholamine administration on the same stress-related parameters. Upon analyzing the effect of repeated restraint stress on PPs, it was found that there was no modification in the morphological structure of the PPs but that restraint stress reduced the total number of lymphocytes and the number of CD8+ T cells, B cells, and plasma cells in PPs. Only at the site of PPs where IgA-producing plasma cells are most numerous (the dome) was a decrease found in this type of cell. These effects were due at least in part to the effect of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Since IgA produced in PPs is a natural antibody that impedes bacterial infections, repeated stress may favor the entry of pathogens through the intestine.

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          Most cited references 32

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          How stress influences the immune response.

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            Terminology: nomenclature of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

            Stimulation of mucosal immunity has great potential in vaccinology and immunotherapy. However, the mucosal immune system is more complex than the systemic counterpart, both in terms of anatomy (inductive and effector tissues) and effectors (cells and molecules). Therefore, immunologists entering this field need a precise terminology as a crucial means of communication. Abbreviations for mucosal immune-function molecules related to the secretory immunoglobulin A system were defined by the Society for Mucosal Immunolgy Nomenclature Committee in 1997, and are briefly recapitulated in this article. In addition, we recommend and justify standard nomenclature and abbreviations for discrete mucosal immune-cell compartments, belonging to, and beyond, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
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              Innate secretory antibodies protect against natural Salmonella typhimurium infection

              The production of IgA is induced in an antigen-unspecific manner by commensal flora. These secretory antibodies (SAbs) may bind multiple antigens and are thought to eliminate commensal bacteria and self-antigens to avoid systemic recognition. In this study, we addressed the role of “innate” SAbs, i.e., those that are continuously produced in normal individuals, in protection against infection of the gastrointestinal tract. We used polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR−/−) knock-out mice, which are unable to bind and actively transport dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM to the mucosae, and examined the role of innate SAbs in protection against the invasive pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. In vitro experiments suggested that innate IgA in pIgR−/− serum bound S. typhimurium in a cross-reactive manner which inhibited epithelial cell invasion. Using a “natural” infection model, we demonstrated that pIgR−/− mice are profoundly sensitive to infection with S. typhimurium via the fecal-oral route and, moreover, shed more bacteria that readily infected other animals. These results imply an important evolutionary role for innate SAbs in protecting both the individual and the herd against infections, and suggest that the major role of SAbs may be to prevent the spread of microbial pathogens throughout the population, rather than protection of local mucosal surfaces.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2011
                06 January 2011
                : 18
                : 3
                : 131-141
                aDepartamento de Bioquímica y Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, bDepartamento de Morfología, y cLaboratorio de Inmunobiología del Endotelio, Escuela Superior de Medicina-IPN, dDepartamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas-IPN, y eDepartamento de Microbiología, Unidad de Biología, Tecnología y Prototipos (UBIPRO), Facultad de Estudios Superiores (FES)-Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, y fLaboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad Mexicana de Medicina, Universidad La Salle, Tlalpan, México
                Author notes
                *Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, PhD, Escuela Superior de Medicina-IPN, Salvador Díaz Mirón y Plan de San Luis s/n, Colonia Santo Tomás, Mexico City 11340 (México), Tel. +52 55 5748 2004, Fax +52 55 5714 5455, E-Mail citli@prodigy.net.mx
                322625 Neuroimmunomodulation 2011;18:131–141
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, Pages: 11
                Original Paper


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