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      Proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia are risk factors for thromboembolic events in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy: an observational study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk of thromboembolic events (TEs). However, this association has not been thoroughly investigated in adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN).

          Methods

          A retrospective analysis of all 101 consecutive adult patients with MN diagnosed at our centre during 1995 to 2008 was performed. Pertinent data including thromboembolic events and the risk factors for TEs were recorded.

          Results

          The cohort was followed for 7.2 ± 3 years. Out of 78 patients with IMN, 15 (19.2%) had at least one TE. No TEs occurred six months after diagnosis. The incidence of TEs in the first 6 months of diagnosis was 7.69% (95%CI, 2.5-17.0) and all patients except one had venous TEs. At the time of diagnosis of MN, the patients with TEs had lower serum albumin (1.9 ± 0.5 vs. 2.4 ± 0.4 g/dl, TE vs. no TE; p < 0.01) and greater serum cholesterol (414 ± 124 vs. 317 ± 108 mg/dl, TE vs. no TE; p = 0.01) and 24-h proteinuria (10.7 ± 3 vs. 7.1 ± 4 g, TE vs. no TE; p < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, cholesterol and creatinine revealed, an odds ratio of 0.8 (95% CI 0.7 – 0.96; p = 0.01) for every one g/dl increase in baseline serum albumin and, an odds ratio of 1.3 (95% CI 1.05-1.58; p = 0.01) for one gram increase in 24-h proteinuria, for TEs.

          Conclusions

          Our study finding confirms IMN as a prothrombotic state particularly in the first six months of diagnosis. Proteinuria, in addition to hypoalbuminemia, is a risk factor for TEs. These results have important implications for clinical care of patients with IMN, particularly with regards to initiation and duration of prophylactic anticoagulation.

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          Most cited references 23

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          High absolute risks and predictors of venous and arterial thromboembolic events in patients with nephrotic syndrome: results from a large retrospective cohort study.

          No data are available on the absolute risk of either venous thromboembolism (VTE) or arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Reported risks are based on multiple case reports and small studies with mostly short-term follow-up. We assessed the absolute risk of VTE and ATE in a large, single-center, retrospective cohort study and attempted to identify predictive factors in these patients. A total of 298 consecutive patients with nephrotic syndrome (59% men; mean age, 42+/-18 years) were enrolled. Mean follow-up was 10+/-9 years. Nephrotic syndrome was defined by proteinuria > or =3.5 g/d, and patients were classified according to underlying histological lesions accounting for nephrotic syndrome. Objectively verified symptomatic thromboembolic events were the primary study outcome. Annual incidences of VTE and ATE were 1.02% (95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.46) and 1.48% (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.99), respectively. Over the first 6 months of follow-up, these rates were 9.85% and 5.52%, respectively. Proteinuria and serum albumin levels tended to be related to VTE; however, only the predictive value of the ratio of proteinuria to serum albumin was significant (hazard ratio, 5.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 26.2; P=0.03). In contrast, neither the degree of proteinuria nor serum albumin levels were related to ATE. Sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, prior ATE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate predicted ATE (P< or =0.02). This study verifies high absolute risks of symptomatic VTE and ATE that were remarkably elevated within the first 6 months. Whereas the ratio of proteinuria to serum albumin predicted VTE, estimated glomerular filtration rate and multiple classic risk factors for atherosclerosis were predictors of ATE.
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            Thromboembolic complications in the nephrotic syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical management.

            Patients with the nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of developing venous and arterial thromboembolism, the most common of which is renal vein thrombosis. There are several unanswered or controversial issues relating to the nephrotic syndrome and thromboembolism, which include the mechanism of thromboembolism, and optimal diagnostic and anticoagulant management strategies. This review will discuss several of these issues: the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of thromboembolic disease occurring in patients with the nephrotic syndrome; the pathophysiology of the hypercoagulable state associated with the nephrotic syndrome; the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis in the nephrotic syndrome; and the evidence for prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation strategies in such patients.
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              The nephrotic syndrome.

               E. Ritz,  S Orth (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2369
                2012
                10 September 2012
                : 13
                : 107
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Royal London and St Bartholomew’s Hospitals, London, UK
                [2 ]Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
                Article
                1471-2369-13-107
                10.1186/1471-2369-13-107
                3480900
                22963194
                Copyright ©2012 Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Nephrology

                proteinuria, membranous nephropathy, hypoalbuminemia, thromboembolism

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