People’s lifestyle and energy use behavior have been shown to influence the energy consumption of buildings. Since university dormitories consume a significant amount of energy, it is important to investigate the energy use behavior of students in such dormitories. The aim of this study was therefore to improve students’ energy use behavior in order to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning in university dormitories. Based on a review of relevant literature, air conditioning energy use behavior was defined, and influencing factors were identified from demographic characteristics, indoor characteristics of personnel, as well as physiological and psychological factors. Students’ air conditioning energy use behavior during the summer and influencing factors of students’ energy use behavior was then revealed by an analysis of 332 respondents to a questionnaire survey. The results indicated that differences in energy use behavior are influenced by: age, major and monthly living expense of students; indoor characteristics such as the number of students in the dormitory, time spent in the dormitory, distance to an air conditioning unit; physiological factors including body comfort, clothing, and activity intensity; and psychological factors including cognition degree, values, living habits, attitude, perceived behavior control, and subjective norms. Based on these findings, suggestions for reducing energy consumed by air conditioning were proposed and intervention studies then conducted to confirm that energy use behavior had improved, with subsequent consumption savings after the intervention. This study adds to the body of knowledge in the field of energy use behavior and provides guidance for the sustainable development of green universities.