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      Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

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          Abstract

          The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

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          Most cited references 106

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon

             Sumio Iijima (1991)
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              Semiconductor Clusters, Nanocrystals, and Quantum Dots

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Cell & Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; E-Mail: williamputzbach2012@ 123456u.northwestern.edu
                [2 ] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Benedictine University, 5700 College Road, Lisle, IL 60532, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: NRonkainen@ 123456ben.edu ;Tel.: +1-630-829-6549; Fax: +1-630-829-6547.
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1424-8220
                April 2013
                11 April 2013
                : 13
                : 4
                : 4811-4840
                23580051 3673113 10.3390/s130404811 sensors-13-04811
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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