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      Neuroendocrine Consequences of Fasting in Adult Male Macaques: Effects of Recombinant Rhesus Macaque Leptin Infusion

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          Abstract

          Fasting inhibits the gonadotropic axis and stimulates the corticotropic and somatotropic axes. Since leptin is a product of fat cells that has been implicated in the control of both reproduction and metabolism, we hypothesized that the decrease in leptin observed during fasting was responsible for these effects on reproductive and metabolic hormones. Recombinant rhesus leptin (rrhLep) produced in our laboratory was infused (100 µg/h) into fasted adult male rhesus macaques (6–9 kg) beginning at midnight after the first missed meal and continuing until the end of the study. Bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone (GH) were measured in plasma from samples collected at 15-min intervals for the last 15 h (42–57 h) of the fast. We analyzed pulsatile LH and GH secretion by deconvolution analysis and the orderliness of pulsatile LH and GH release by the approximate entropy (ApEn) statistic. There was no difference in LH pulse frequency between control and fasted groups, but there was a significant decrease in the mean concentration of LH released (7.6 ± 1.4 ng/ml control vs. 2.7 ± 0.65 ng/ml fasted) that was not relieved with rrhLep infusions (2.8 ± 0.83 ng/ml). Model-free Cluster analysis confirmed these inferences and also indicated that the peak height was lower in the fasted (4.6 ± 1.0 ng/ml) and the fasted + rrhLep (2.85 ± 1.0 ng/ml) groups compared to controls (16.3 ± 1.4 ng/ml). Testosterone levels reflected those of LH. Fasting resulted in an increase in GH secretory pulse frequency (5.3 ± 0.95 pulses/15 h control vs. 12.8 ± 1.4 pulses/15 h fasted) and this increase was not affected by rrhLep infusion (12.5 ± 1.4 pulses/15 h). In addition, fasting also increased the ApEn (decreased the orderliness) of pulsatile GH secretion, and this characteristic was not relieved with rrhLep infusions. Cortisol levels in fasted animals were 2- to 3-fold higher than those observed in control studies, and this increase was particularly pronounced at the time when the animals expected their first meal of the day. The increase in circulating cortisol observed in fasted animals was not affected by rrhLep infusion. Glucose levels at the end of the sampling period were 80 mg/dl in controls, 48 mg/dl in fasted animals and 58 mg/dl in the fasted + rrhLep group. Circulating leptin levels averaged 1.2 ± 0.37 ng/ml in control animals, 0.7 ± 0.2 ng/ml in fasted animals and 10.1 ± 5.6 ng/ml in fasted animals infused with rrhLep. These studies suggest that intravenous replacement with homologous leptin does not reverse the acute changes in GH, LH and cortisol secretion observed with fasting in the adult male macaque.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Signals that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis.

          Feeding behavior is critical for survival. In addition to providing all of the body's macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) and most micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), feeding behavior is a fundamental aspect of energy homeostasis, the process by which body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant over long intervals. For this process to occur, the amount of energy consumed must match precisely the amount of energy expended. This review focuses on the molecular signals that modulate food intake while integrating the body's immediate and long-term energy needs.
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            Early onset of reproductive function in normal female mice treated with leptin.

            Numerous studies have revealed an association between nutritional status, adiposity, and reproductive maturity. The role of leptin, a hormone secreted from adipose tissue, in the onset of reproductive function was investigated. Normal prepubertal female mice injected with leptin grew at a slower rate than controls as a result of the hormone's thinning effects, but they reproduced up to 9 days earlier than controls and showed earlier maturation of the reproductive tract. These results suggest that leptin acts as a signal triggering puberty, thus supporting the hypothesis that fat accumulation enhances maturation of the reproductive tract.
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              Pathophysiology of the Neuroregulation of Growth Hormone Secretion in Experimental Animals and the Human

               A Giustina (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2000
                March 2000
                20 March 2000
                : 71
                : 3
                : 196-208
                Affiliations
                aCell Biology & Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Tex., and bDepartment of Medicine and NSF Center for Biological Timing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., USA
                Article
                54537 Neuroendocrinology 2000;71:196–208
                10.1159/000054537
                10729791
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 64, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Leptin and Neuroendocrine Control of Feeding

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