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      Factors influencing full immunization coverage among 12–23 months of age children in Ethiopia: evidence from the national demographic and health survey in 2011

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      BMC Public Health

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions to reduce child morbidity and mortality. The 2011 national demographic and health survey (DHS) indicated low full immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months in Ethiopia. Factors contributing to the low coverage of immunization have been poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with full immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months in Ethiopia.

          Methods

          This study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. A total of 1,927 mothers with children of 12–23 months of age were extracted from the children’s dataset. Mothers’ self-reported data and observations of vaccination cards were used to determine vaccine coverage. An adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was used to outline the independent predictors.

          Results

          The prevalence of fully immunized children was 24.3 %. Specific vaccination coverage for three doses of DPT, three doses of polio, measles and BCG were 36.5 %, 44.3 %, 55.7 % and 66.3 %, respectively. The multivariable analysis showed that sources of information from vaccination card [AOR 95 % CI; 7.7 (5.95-10.06)], received postnatal check-up within two months after birth [AOR 95 % CI; 1.8 (1.28-2.56)], women’s awareness of community conversation program [AOR 95 % CI; 1.9 (1.44-2.49)] and women in the rich wealth index [AOR 95 % CI; 1.4 (1.06-1.94)] were the predictors of full immunization coverage. Women from Afar [AOR 95 % CI; 0.07 (0.01-0.68)], Amhara [AOR 95 % CI; 0.33 (0.13-0.81)], Oromiya [AOR 95 % CI; 0.15 (0.06-0.37)], Somali [AOR 95 % CI; 0.15 (0.04-0.55)] and Southern Nation and Nationalities People administrative regions [AOR 95 % CI; 0.35 (0.14-0.87)] were less likely to fully vaccinate their children.

          Conclusion

          The overall full immunization coverage in Ethiopia was considerably low as compared to the national target set (66 %). Health service use and access to information on maternal and child health were found to predict full immunization coverage. Appropriate strategies should be devised to enhance health information and accessibility for full immunization coverage by addressing the variations among regions.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Goodness of fit tests for the multiple logistic regression model

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            Automated variable selection methods for logistic regression produced unstable models for predicting acute myocardial infarction mortality.

            Automated variable selection methods are frequently used to determine the independent predictors of an outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility of logistic regression models developed using automated variable selection methods. An initial set of 29 candidate variables were considered for predicting mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We drew 1,000 bootstrap samples from a dataset consisting of 4,911 patients admitted to hospital with an AMI. Using each bootstrap sample, logistic regression models predicting 30-day mortality were obtained using backward elimination, forward selection, and stepwise selection. The agreement between the different model selection methods and the agreement across the 1,000 bootstrap samples were compared. Using 1,000 bootstrap samples, backward elimination identified 940 unique models for predicting mortality. Similar results were obtained for forward and stepwise selection. Three variables were identified as independent predictors of mortality among all bootstrap samples. Over half the candidate prognostic variables were identified as independent predictors in less than half of the bootstrap samples. Automated variable selection methods result in models that are unstable and not reproducible. The variables selected as independent predictors are sensitive to random fluctuations in the data.
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              Access, utilization, quality, and effective coverage: an integrated conceptual framework and measurement strategy.

              Health systems can primarily improve the health of individuals and populations by delivering high-quality interventions to those who may benefit from them. We propose a concept of effective coverage as the probability that individuals will receive health gain from an intervention if they need it. Understanding the extent to which health systems are delivering key interventions to those who will benefit from them and the factors that explain gaps in delivery are a critical input to decision-making at the local, national and global levels. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for monitoring and analyzing the delivery of high-quality interventions to those who need them. This framework can help clarify the inter-relationships between notions of access, demand for care, utilization, and coverage on the one hand and highlight the requirements for health information systems that can sustain this type of analysis. We discuss measurement strategies and demonstrate the concept by means of a simple simulation model.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yihunierh@yahoo.com
                alemayehubekele2002@yahoo.com
                +251911305011 , sibhatu2010@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                30 July 2015
                30 July 2015
                2015
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [ ]Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), P.O Box 7117, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [ ]Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), P.O Box 7117, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [ ]Independent Public Health Research Consultant, P.O Box 24414, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Article
                2078
                10.1186/s12889-015-2078-6
                4520202
                © Lakew et al. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Public health

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