In 15 patients with end-stage renal failure and proven coronary heart disease, profile haemodialysis with decreasing ultrafiltration rate and hyperionic, decreasing dialysate solute concentration was compared with conventional, extracorporeal bicarbonate haemodialysis (Na<sup>+</sup><sub>D</sub> =138 mmol/l). Body fluid distribution and the release of vasoactive hormones (plasma renin activity, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and atrial natriuretic peptide) were investigated. Haemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and constant dialysate composition (A) was followed by two dialysis profiles: decreasing ultrafiltration rate (B) and additional hyperionic, decreasing dialysate sodium concentration (C). In all 15 patients, the dialysis procedures (A) – (C) were used for 2 weeks each with six sessions, the last being taken for investigation. Body fluid distribution was calculated. In patients with serum sodium above 136 mmol/l, the conventional dialysis (A) as well as the Uf profile (B) showed a net fluid shift from extracellular volume (ECV) to intracellular volume (ICV). Using the profile with hyperionic, decreasing Na<sup>+</sup>D (C), the reverse fluid shift with decreasing ICV was achieved not only in those with serum Na<sup>+</sup> < 136 mmol/l, but also in those with serum Na<sup>+</sup> ≥ 136 mmol/l. The release of vasoactive hormones decreased already at profile haemodialysis (B) compared with (A) and was further reduced in (C). These results would suggest, profile dialyses B and C to have less impact on the cardiovascular system in elderly patients assuming higher patient comfort compared with the standard dialysis procedure. A higher benefit was obtained in C compared with B, presumably due to the additional prevention of the ICV shift and plasma volume depletion in patients with initial serum sodium ≥ 136 mmol/l using transiently hyperionic Na<sup>+</sup><sub>D</sub>. These results show that in elderly patients, hyperionic profile haemodialysis (Na<sup>+</sup><sub>D</sub> > Na<sup>+</sup>s) had less impact on cardiovascular regulation than conventional bicarbonate dialysis.