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      Clinical efficacy of Spasmofen ® suppository in the emergency treatment of renal colic: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy comparative trial

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          Abstract

          Background

          Renal colic is typically characterized by the sudden onset of severe pain radiating from the flank to the groin and its acute management in emergency departments essentially aims at rapid pain relief. Spasmofen ® is a brand of Amriya Pharmaceutical Industries in the form of rectal suppositories containing ketoprofen 100 mg and hyoscine butylbromide 10 mg. This combination is intended for the rapid relief of severe colicky pain in the renal system, hepatobiliary system, or gastrointestinal tract. This trial aims to compare a single-dose of Spasmofen rectal suppository to a single intravenous (IV) ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg/2 mL dose in patients with acute renal colic.

          Methods

          A total of 80 eligible consecutive patients presenting to the emergency departments of two medical centers with acute renal colic were included in the study. Eligible patients who signed the informed consent were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: an experimental group (Spasmofen group) who received one Spasmofen rectal suppository plus an IV injection of 2 mL of normal saline solution; and a control group (ketorolac group) who received one ketorolac 30 mg/2 mL ampoule IV plus one placebo suppository. Treatment success, defined as a change in the verbal rating score from severe or moderate pain to none or mild at 60 minutes after the dose, was compared between groups using the chi-square/Fisher’s exact test. Percentage reductions in visual pain analog scale (VPAS) scores at 15 and 60 minutes after the dose were compared between groups using the Z-test for proportions.

          Results

          Successful treatment at 60 minutes occurred in 35 of 40 (87.5%) of Spasmofen-treated patients and in 33 of 40 (82.5%) of ketorolac-treated patients. The difference was not statistically significant by Fisher’s exact test ( P=0.755). The mean percentage reduction of VPAS after 15 minutes was 61.82% in the Spasmofen-treated group and 64.76% in the ketorolac-treated group. The difference was also not statistically significant by the Z-test for proportions ( P=0.795). Sixty minutes after being treated, Spasmofen was associated with a statistically significant greater reduction in VPAS (mean% reduction =92.36%) than ketorolac (75.06%; P=0.0466).

          Conclusion

          Single-dose Spasmofen rectal suppository might be a safe and effective first-aid treatment for the emergency department relief of acute renal colic.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

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            Hyoscine butylbromide: a review of its use in the treatment of abdominal cramping and pain.

             G Tytgat (2006)
            Abdominal cramping and pain is a frequent problem in the adult population of Western countries, with an estimated prevalence of < or =30%. Hyoscine butylbromide (scopolamine butylbromide) [Buscopan/Buscapina] is an antispasmodic drug indicated for the treatment of abdominal pain associated with cramps induced by gastrointestinal (GI) spasms. It was first registered in Germany in 1951 and marketed in 1952, and has since become available worldwide both as a prescription drug and as an over-the-counter medicine in many countries. This article reviews the pharmacology and pharmacokinetic profile of hyoscine butylbromide, and summarises efficacy and safety data from clinical trials of this drug for abdominal cramping and pain. Pharmacological studies have revealed that hyoscine butylbromide is an anticholinergic drug with high affinity for muscarinic receptors located on the smooth-muscle cells of the GI tract. Its anticholinergic action exerts a smooth-muscle relaxing/spasmolytic effect. Blockade of the muscarinic receptors in the GI tract is the basis for its use in the treatment of abdominal pain secondary to cramping. Hyoscine butylbromide also binds to nicotinic receptors, which induces a ganglion-blocking effect. Several pharmacokinetic studies in humans have consistently demonstrated the low systemic availability of hyoscine butylbromide after oral administration, with plasma concentrations of the drug generally being below the limit of quantitation. The bioavailability of hyoscine butylbromide, estimated from renal excretion, was generally <1%. However, because of its high tissue affinity for muscarinic receptors, hyoscine butylbromide remains available at the site of action in the intestine and exerts a local spasmolytic effect.Ten placebo-controlled studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral or rectal hyoscine butylbromide. Hyoscine butylbromide was considered beneficial in all of these trials, which supports its use in the treatment of abdominal pain caused by cramping. Hyoscine butylbromide is barely absorbed and detectable in the blood and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, and is, therefore, generally well tolerated. Few adverse events have been reported; in particular, no significant increases in the incidence of anticholinergic-related adverse effects have been observed. In summary, hyoscine butylbromide appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with cramping.
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              Prostaglandin-synthetase inhibition with diclofenac sodium in treatment of renal colic: comparison with use of a narcotic analgesic.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                02 May 2014
                : 8
                : 405-410
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Green Clinic and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt
                [2 ]Alexandria Helmy Medical Center, Alexandria, Egypt
                [3 ]Pharco Corporation, Alexandria, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mostafa Yakoot, Green Clinic and Research Center, 27 Green Street, Alexandria, Egypt, Tel +20 12 2392 7561, Email yakoot@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                dddt-8-405
                10.2147/DDDT.S62571
                4018316
                © 2014 Yakoot et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                rct, ketorolac, hyoscine butylbromide, ketoprofen, renal colic

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