To assess the relationships of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and erythrocyte deformability with pathological changes of selected target organs, and with inflammation markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen, in a group of newly diagnosed, never-treated and otherwise healthy hypertensive patients. The study group consisted of 101 adults divided into three sub-groups: 37 diagnosed arterial hypertension, 29 with hypercholesterolemia, and 35 healthy. The individuals with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were otherwise healthy and were not on any therapy prior to entering the study. For each individual, data were obtained on: systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (IMT), left ventricle geometry, blood morphology, lipids profile, fibrinogen, CRP, IL-6 and red blood cell deformability index (DI). In the group of hypertensives, the multivariate regression analysis showed significant relationship of RDW with PWV, IL6 and fibrinogen. Also, RDW was found to be correlated with MCHC and DI, and MCHC was significantly related to IMT and IL-6. A hypothesis has been formulated that the development of target organ damage in hypertension is accompanied by the increasing impairment of erythropoiesis. This process may be mediated by inflammation.